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Combined-field solution of composite geometries involving open and closed conducting surfaces

Combined-field integral equation (CFIE) is modified and generalized to formulate the electromagnetic problems of composite geometries involving both open and closed conducting surfaces. These problems are customarily formulated with the electric-field integral equation (EFIE) due to the presence of the open surfaces. With the new definition and application of the CFIE, iterative solutions of these problems are now achieved with significantly improved efficiency compared to the EFIE solution, without sacrificing the accuracy.