Colour and AOX removal from pulping effluents by algae

A mixed culture of algae was used to treat pulping mill effluent in terms of removing both colour and adsorbably organic halides (AOX). The removal of AOX from pulping effluent increased with increasing initial colour Value of the effluent. However, for the total mill effluent (composed of both pulping and bleaching effluents), AOX removal was found to be independent of initial colour value, and was around 70%. Up to 80% removal of colour from pulping effluent was achieved within 30 days under continuous lighting conditions. It was found that algae reduced the colour of pulping effluent of relatively low initial colour more efficiently than that of high initial colour. Under simulated field lighting conditions, up to 60% colour removal from pulping, effluent was observed after 60 days of exposure, whereas for the total mill effluent it was up to 64% after 45 days. Total organic carbon and lignin (UVA(280)) were also removed to a significant extent, suggesting that the mechanism of colour removal might not be transformation of the coloured lignin molecules to non-coloured ones. Analysis of alkaline extraction of the algal biomass and material balance findings indicated that the main colour removal mechanism was metabolism rather than adsorption. The experimental results were also analysed using multiple regression techniques and a mathematical model was developed to express the removal of colour from pulping effluents in terms of initial colour value, exposure time and lighting periods as well as interactions between these variables.


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Scytalidium thermophilum type culture Torula thermophila was isolated from mushroom compost and the total cellulase, endoglucanase, Avicel-adsorbable endoglucanase activities, as well as the fungal biomass generation and cellulose utilisation were analyzed in shake flask cultures with Avicel (microcrystalline cellulose) as the carbon source. Results were compared with an industrial strain of Scyalidium thermophilum type culture Humicola insolens. The pH and temperature optima for endoglucanase activities du...
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A simple microbiological technique was used to differentially enumerate growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in a mixed culture. The growth of the microorganisms in the mixed culture was satisfactorily simulated with a set of modified logistic equations. This simple model was valid for various initial biomass concentrations and their ratios. It did not need substrate or product data for simulation of biomass growth, which may simplify the calculations in fermenter design. It was...
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Distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of bioethanol fermentation, which uses the dry milling technology for starch-rich grains such as corn, wheat, and barley. The current interest in bioethanol is increasing due to the need for renewable liquid fuels specifically in the transportation sector. Since DDGS is rich in crude protein, fat, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, it is currently used as aquaculture, livestock, and poultry feeds. In recent years, DDGS has been used as feedstock in the...
Citation Formats
F. B. Dilek and E. Tarlan, “Colour and AOX removal from pulping effluents by algae,” APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, pp. 585–591, 1999, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: