Fire Retardant Properties of Intumescent Polypropylene Composites Filled With Calcium Carbonate

Isitman, Nihat Ali
Dogan, Mehmet
Bayramli, ERDAL
Kaynak, Cevdet
This study was aimed to investigate the influence of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), a widely used filler, on the fire retardancy of intumescent polypropylene composites. Two intumescent systems based on (1) mixture of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and pentaerythritol and (2) surface-modified APP (m-APP) were examined. In terms of steady heat release rate, total heat evolved, and fire growth index determined by mass loss calorimetry, m-APP performed markedly superior to APP-pentaerythritol. The presence of CaCO(3) in both intumescent formulations caused significant losses in fire retardant performance assessed by mass loss calorimetry, limiting oxygen index and UL-94 tests. Peak rates of heat release and mass loss during combustion, and total heat evolved on combustion were increased, whereas time to ignition was decreased. Characterization of fire residues ascribed the mechanism of deterioration in fire retardancy to the formation of porous and nonexpanded crystalline calcium phosphate/CaCO(3) residues during combustion rather than the amorphous protective intumescent chars formed in the absence of CaCO(3). POLYm. ENG. SCI., 51:875-883, 2011. (C) 2011 Society of Plastics Engineers


Gündüz, Güngör; OZTURK, S (Informa UK Limited, 1994-01-01)
Flame retardance properties of 1,3 propylene glycol based unsaturated polyester containing 40% styrene and 20% acrylonitrile were investigated. The polyester with 12% Br content is self-extinguishing while others with lower bromine contents burn slowly. The high decrease in mechanical strength due to the presence of bromine is highly compensated by acrylonitrile.
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Akay, G. (Wiley, 1990-11)
The irreversible absorption of macromolecules on to solid filler particles during mixing in the melt is investigated. The molecular weight and concentration dependence of the absorbed layer thickness are evaluated and the chemical and morphological nature of the irreversibly absorbed polymer (bound polymer) are determined. It is found that the thickness of the bound polymer is not only dependent on the filler concentration but also dependent on polymer molecular weight. Bound polymer in high density polyeth...
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Calcium carbonate was surface-modified by plasma-polymerized acetylene and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties of calcium carbonate-polypropylene composites was investigated. Two different plasma polymerization conditions were selected and applied. Chemical structures of plasma-polymerized acetylene products were identified. Mechanical and thermal properties of the composites prepared were evaluated and the effects of surface modification on the extent of adhesion of filler to th...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate contribution of nanoclays to the flame retardancy performance of a traditional brominated flame retardant compound with various combinations of antimony trioxide and zinc borate. The matrix polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was compounded by melt mixing in a laboratory size twin-screw extruder. X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanoclay silicate layers were mainly intercalated with certain level of exfoliati...
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The objective of this study was to encapsulate gallic acid in Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) blend nanofiber by using electrospinning and examine the usage of nanofibers as active packaging materials. Gallic acid loaded nanofibers showed homogenous morphology. Gallic acid was loaded into nanofibers efficiently and nanofibers showed strong antioxidant activity. As the gallic acid amount increased, the TGA curves had shifted one stage to two stage degradation and degradation te...
Citation Formats
N. A. Isitman, M. Dogan, E. Bayramli, and C. Kaynak, “Fire Retardant Properties of Intumescent Polypropylene Composites Filled With Calcium Carbonate,” POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, pp. 875–883, 2011, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: