Stereotypes of single and married women and men in Turkish culture

Sakallı, Nuray
While it is natural for stereotypes of social groups to change over time and across various social contexts, there has been a lack of research investigating how marriage impacts specifically gender-based stereotypes. In Turkish culture, social status, roles, and stereotypes are highly dependent on marital status, and more so for women, who are labeled as “girls” until marriage. The present research seeks to examine how people picture men and women before and after marriage through free response. Specifically, undergraduates (N = 206) wrote down adjectives for single men, married men, single women, and married women. Adjectives were categorized using thematic analysis into stereotypes of appearance, personality traits, gender roles, and power. Single men were predominantly described with negative personality traits (e.g., womanizer, irresponsible, self-indulgent, and immature) whereas stereotypes of married men aligned more with traditional gender roles (e.g., father, breadwinner, and householder). However, participants stereotyped single and married men within similar power domains (dominant, masculine, and independent). On the other hand, single women were mainly stereotyped by their personality traits (e.g., fragile/pure) while married women were mainly described with their gender roles (e.g., self-sacrificing, mothering/nurturing) and positive personality traits (e.g., warm, mature). Additionally, participants described both single and married women as dominated, dependent, and resistant to power. Results are discussed considering sexism theory, system justification theory, and honor. Findings can be applied to understandings of how marriage may shape gender stereotypes in highly gendered, honor cultures.
Current Psychology


Sayın Güran, Ümmühan; Ergun Özbolat, Ayça; Department of Gender and Women's Studies (2021-9)
Gender perceptions and gender-based stereotypes might heavily affect the motives behind the preference of a profession, and teaching is among the professions in which gender-based differences are most prominent. In terms of the qualifications it requires and the opportunities it offers, teaching is a profession where women can carry out their individual and professional roles together. The gender-based division of labor adheres to traditional norms both in the private sphere and in the public sphere, and it...
Decisions and justifications of Turkish children about social exclusion/inclusion concerning gender, disadvantaged groups and aggressiveness in relation to age and prosocial behaviour
Gönül, Buse; Şahin Acar, Başak; Department of Psychology (2014)
The main aim of the current study is to explore children’s decision and justification patterns on social exclusion and inclusion, across gender, disadvantaged groups, and aggressiveness themes in different social contexts. In order to have a complementary insight about the issue, the predictive role of individual factors, as age and prosocial behavior were also examined. 150 children from two age groups of 10 and 13 completed a questionnaire, including three tasks as; forced-choice questions about daily int...
How are women and men perceived? Structure of gender stereotypes in contemporary Turkey
Sakallı, Nuray; Kuzlak, Abdulkadir (2018-12-01)
Although gender stereotypes is a popular topic in social psychology, research on gender stereotypes in Turkish culture is limited. Therefore the purpose of the study was twofold: (1) to present how people describe women and men, and (2) to generate the underlying themes of the descriptions for each gender in order to present the structure of gender stereotypes in Turkish culture. By using free response method, undergraduates (N = 491) were asked to write down 10 adjectives to describe women and men. Frequen...
Perfectionism and perceived parenting style among university students
Alvan, Gizem; Tezer, Esin; Department of Educational Sciences (2015)
In this study, the relationship between perceived parenting styles and perfectionism was investigated among male and female university students. Two questionnaires, namely, Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) Turkish version and Parenting Styles Scales were administered to 530 (245 males and 285 females) undergraduate students of METU. The results of two separate multivariate analysis of variance conducted for mothers and fathers revealed that those who perceived their mothers and fathers as authoritative ...
Pictures of male homosexuals in the heads of Turkish college students: the effects of sex difference and social contact on stereotyping.
Sakallı, Nuray (Informa UK Limited, 2002-01-01)
The purpose of this study was to focus on the context of stereotypes of gay men, and how sex differences and social contact influence the stereotypic and counter-stereotypic attributes of them. To do that, 77 female and 106 male heterosexual undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants filled out a rating scale. The findings of the study demonstrated that male participants defined male homosexuals by using more stereotypic, less counter-stereotypic attributes, while female participants...
Citation Formats
N. Sakallı, A. KUZLAK, and A. GUPTA, “Stereotypes of single and married women and men in Turkish culture,” Current Psychology, pp. 0–0, 2018, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: