A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals

Albert, Frank W.
Somel, Mehmet
Carneiro, Miguel
Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer
Halbwax, Michel
Thalmann, Olaf
Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.
Plyusnina, Irina Z.
Trut, Lyudmila
Villafuerte, Rafael
Ferrand, Nuno
Kaiser, Sylvia
Jensen, Per
Paeaebo, Svante
Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.


An expanded molecular phylogeny of Plumbaginaceae, with emphasis on Limonium (sea lavenders): Taxonomic implications and biogeographic considerations
Koutroumpa, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Spyros; Warren, Ben H.; Jimenez, Ares; Celep, Ferhat; Doğan, Musa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Maria Fernandez-Palacios, Jose; Caujape-Castells, Juli; Moura, Monica; de Sequeira, Miguel Menezes; Conti, Elena (Wiley, 2018-12-01)
Plumbaginaceae is characterized by a history of multiple taxonomic rearrangements and lacks a broad molecular phylogenetic framework. Limonium is the most species-rich genus of the family with ca. 600 species and cosmopolitan distribution. Its center of diversity is the Mediterranean region, where ca. 70% of all Limonium species are endemic. In this study, we sample 201 Limonium species covering all described infrageneric entities and spanning its wide geographic range, along with 64 species of other Plumba...
The relationship between genetic and shape variation in endemic and endangered freshwater fish species pseudophoxinus
Telli, Murat; Kence, Aykut; Department of Biology (2008)
Evolutionary models addressing interaction between genetics and morphology propose that during development, morphological traits of organisms are under canalization selection resulting in constancy in morphology through evolutionary time. The hypothesis of genetic homeostasis predict that because of developmental buffering effects of heterosis, high level heterozygosity results in low level of morphological variance from the norms of canalized shape of the population. The aim of the present study is to test...
Early gene expression divergence between allopatric populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus)
Bryk, Jaroslaw; Somel, Mehmet; Lorenc, Anna; Teschke, Meike (Wiley, 2013-03-01)
Divergence of gene expression is known to contribute to the differentiation and separation of populations and species, although the dynamics of this process in early stages of population divergence remains unclear. We analyzed gene expression differences in three organs (brain, liver, and testis) between two natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus that have been separated for at most 3000years. We used two different microarray platforms to corroborate the results at a large scale and identified hundr...
Exceptional maternal lineage diversity in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Turkey
Cilingir, F. Gozde; Peksen, Cigdem Akin; Ambarli, Huseyin; Beerli, Peter; Bilgin, Cemal Can (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2016-02-01)
The genetic diversity and phylogeography of maternal lineages in Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 (the brown bear) have been studied extensively over the last two decades; however, sampling has largely been limited to the northern Holarctic, and was possibly biased towards lineages that recolonized the vast expanses of the north as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ended. Here we report the genetic diversity and phylogeography of U.arctos from Turkey based on 35 non-invasive samples, including five from captive ind...
Widespread splicing changes in human brain development and aging
Mazin, Pavel; Xiong, Jieyi; Liu, Xiling; Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Mingshuang; He, Liu; Somel, Mehmet; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe; Li, Na; Hu, Yuhui; Fu, Ning; Ning, Zhibin; Zeng, Rong; Yang, Hongyi; Chen, Wei; Gelfand, Mikhail; Khaitovich, Philipp (EMBO, 2013-01-01)
While splicing differences between tissues, sexes and species are well documented, little is known about the extent and the nature of splicing changes that take place during human or mammalian development and aging. Here, using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we have characterized splicing changes that take place during whole human lifespan in two brain regions: prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. Identified changes were confirmed using independent human and rhesus macaque RNA-seq data sets, exon ar...
Citation Formats
F. W. Albert et al., “A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals,” PLOS GENETICS, pp. 0–0, 2012, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/37904.