Biotransformation of Nonylphenol Diethoxylate in anaerobic digesters: Accumulation of metabolites and their effects on digester performance

Murdoch, Fadime Kara
Sanin, Faika Dilek
Nonylphenol(poly)ethoxylates (NPnEOs) have caused great concern over the last few decades due to their lipophilic, hydrophobic, and toxic properties. NPnEOs can be degraded to a certain extent in wastewater treatment plants; however since they accumulate in sludge, understanding their influence on digester performance and their fate become important, especially in regards to land application of biosolids. In this respect, the biotransformation of nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), an accumulative metabolite of NPnEOs, into degradation products was monitored in NP2EO-amended lab-scale semi continuous anaerobic digesters. Determination and quantification of the degradation products, nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC), was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results revealed that 90% of NP2EO was eliminated from the system within approximately 52 days following the spike. As biodegradation of NP2EO progressed, both NP1EO and NP accumulated in the sludge samples. NP1EC was not detected in any of the digesters. Methane production, solids reduction and COD removal were not affected by the spike of NP2EO or by the presence of biodegradation products (NP1EO and NP) in the digester system. The persistence and accumulation of NP and NP1EO verifies concerns about the potential danger for land application of biosolids.


Biodegradation of nonylphenols, determination of degradation products and detection of responsible microorganisms using molecular techniques
Kara Murdoch, Fadime; Sanin, Faika Dilek; Gültekin, Güzin Candan; Department of Biotechnology (2015)
Nonylphenol(poly)ethoxylates (NPnEO) have received special attention during the last decades due to their toxic and endocrine-disrupting effects for many organisms. They have limited degradation in wastewater treatment plants especially in activated sludge units. Since they accumulate in sludge, understanding of their fate during sludge treatment is important. With this motivation, this research aimed to monitor the degradation of nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO, as a parent compound) into its degradation p...
Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction
Ibrayev, R. A; Ozsoy, E; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. I. (Copernicus GmbH, 2010-3-3)
<jats:p>Abstract. A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmo...
Covalent immobilization of alpha-amylase onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(styrene-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) microspheres and the effect of Ca2+ ions on the enzyme activity
Tumturk, H; Aksoy, S; Hasırcı, Nesrin (2000-02-01)
alpha-Amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan-glucanohydrolase; EC, Type VI-B from porcine pancreas, extra pure 29 units mg(-1)) was covalently immobilized on poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), p(HEMA), and poly (styrene-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), p(St-HEMA) microspheres, which were activated by using epichlorohydrin (ECH). The properties of the immobilized enzyme were investigated and compared with those of the free enzyme. For the assays carried out at 25 degrees C and pH 6.9, the relative activities were...
Mericarp micromorphology and anatomy of Salvia hedgeana Donmez, S. huberi Hedge and S. rosifolia Sm. (section Salvia Hedge, Lamiaceae)
Mericarp (nutlet) micromorphology and pericarp structure of three morphologically similar endemic Salvia species; Salvia hedgeana, S. huberi and S. rosifolia were investigated using LM, SEM and TEM. Salvia hedgeana has larger mericarps and abscission scars than S. huberi and S. rosifolia. Mericarp length to width ratio ranges from 1.11 in S. hedgeana to 1.60 in S. huberi. Mericarp shape is mainly ovoid, rarely broadly ovoid in S. hedgeana, and oblong in S. huberi. The mericarp surface sculpturing pattern in...
Illitization of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous K-bentonites from Western Pontides, NW Turkey: Implications for their origin and age
BOZKAYA, ÖMER; Günal Türkmenoğlu, Asuman; Göncüoğlu, Mehmet Cemal; Unluce, Ozge; Yılmaz, İsmail Ömer; Schroeder, Paul A. (2016-12-01)
K-bentonite (tephra) layers are exposed as thin beds within Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous carbonates of the Yilanh formation at four different locations in northwestern, Turkey. Clays separated from K-bentonites in the Gavurpman, Yilanh Burnu (Barth) and Cimsir Cukurlari (Sapca) quarries and the highway tunnel section near Zonguldak were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical, scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The clay mineral...
Citation Formats
F. K. Murdoch and F. D. Sanin, “Biotransformation of Nonylphenol Diethoxylate in anaerobic digesters: Accumulation of metabolites and their effects on digester performance,” INTERNATIONAL BIODETERIORATION & BIODEGRADATION, pp. 61–68, 2016, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: