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Physicochemical mechanisms of different biopolymers' (lysozyme, gum arabic, whey protein, chitosan) adsorption on green tea extract loaded liposomes

Having various domains of applicability, liposomes have been the issue of many studies since 1960s. Kinetically stable nature of liposomes required incorporation of other substituents to gain storage stability and interaction of liposomes with polymers, electrolytes, proteins or lipids still requires further investigation to explain the underlying mechanism. In this study, polyphenol-rich green tea extract was encapsulated into liposomes by means of microfluidization in two different aqueous media (pH = 3.8 acetate buffer and pH = 6.5 distilled water). Antioxidant loaded vesicles were further mixed with anionic biopolymers (gum arabic, whey protein) and cationic biopolymers (lysozyme, chitosan) separately. The physical and chemical interactions between liposomes and biopolymers were rationalized by particle size, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity measurements during 28-days storage at 4 degrees C. Experimental results indicated that the biopolymer incorporated liposomes showed better stability compared to control liposomes during storage, developing resistance against changes in particle size and zeta potential. On the other hand, biopolymer interaction mechanisms were shown to be different for different biopolymers. As was also proved by transmission electron microscopy, lysozyme was absorbed into the liposomes while gum arabic, whey protein and chitosan were adsorbed on the vesicle surface to shield green tea extract loaded liposomes