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Historical development of simulated body fluids used in biomedical applications: A review

Simulated body fluid (SBF) is an acellular, protein-free, supersaturated calcium-phosphate solution with ionic composition nearly equal to that of human blood plasma and generally buffered at physiological conditions (pH 7.4 and 36.5 degrees C). Various SBF formulations have been used for decades to: (1) test corrosion and bone-bonding behavior, bioactivity, ion release, swelling and biodegradation rates of biomaterials and (2) deposit calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite, onto the substrates of different kinds by biomimetic and electrochemical methods. This review reports the wide range of compositional variations in SBF solutions and reviews the studies in biomedical area where SBF has been used for a number of different purposes, such as increasing the osseointegration (direct bonding with bone) capability of implant biomaterials or testing the corrosion rate of metallic biomaterials.