Oil shale: Pyrolysis, combustion, and environment: A review

In this study, instances where combustion techniques have been applied for oil shale characterization, kinetics, and effect on environment are reviewed. The major themes of the review were the composition, geochemistry, advanced spectroscopic and pyrolysis techniques, thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis), conversion including static and fluid bed retorting, and environmental considerations.