The Islamism of Abdulhamid and its opposition in the last period of the Ottoman Empire

Sancak, Lütfullah
Islamism is a concept that has occupied a central place in the political and intellectual life of the Muslim World since the 1860s. With different actors and varying methodologies and objectives, Islamism as a political movement has been practiced in various formations. This multiplicity has led to several conflicts among different Islamist actors. The conflict between Abdulhamid II and the Ottoman Islamist intellectuals is one of the central conflicts in Islamist political thought. Although both sides were Islamist, this commonality did not lead to cooperation among these actors. This thesis explores the commonalities and divergences between the Islamism of Abdulhamid and that of the intellectuals, through the examination of the regional and international conditions, actors, and discourse of each Islamist group. The last part of the thesis analyzes what changed in the context of Islamism from the time of the Ottoman Empire to the post-Ottoman Middle East.