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Kızıltepe low-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Sındırgı, Balıkesir): an example for relay-ramp-hosted epithermal gold mineralization in western Turkey

Uğurlu, Berkin
Kızıltepe, located 50 km southeast of Balıkesir in western Turkey, has a long history of precious metal mining back to 2000 years and hosts numerous low sulfidation epithermal quartz veins. In the modern times, subsequent to 25 years of mineral exploration activities, first gold silver mining operation has started on the vein sector called Arzu South in 2017, and 3 other sectors; Arzu North, Derya and Banu on the line. Kızıltepe low sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization is hosted by early Miocene dacitic volcanics/volcanoclastics and directly associated with the recent extensional tectonic regime of western Turkey. The study of the stress field orientations based on the available fault surfaces identified 3 domains; (A) E–W- trending northern boundary faults, (B) southern boundary faults and (C) NW–SE-trending normal faults observed in Arzu South open pit. Relative sense of motion of the blocks are studied by utilizing the orientation data of the fault plains and paleostress analysis are performed to determine the tectonic stress. The interpretation of all the results suggest to characterize Kızıltepe deposit as a relay ramp hosted epithermal gold mineralization.