Computational simulation and realization of three-dimensional metamaterials with various exotic properties

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2019
İbili, Hande
In this study, computational analysis and realization of three-dimensional metamaterial structures that induce negative and zero permittivity and/or permeability values in their host environment, as well as plasmonic nanoparticles that are used to design metamaterials at optical frequencies are presented. All these electromagnetic problems are challenging since effective material properties become negative/zero, while numerical solvers are commonly developed for ordinary positive parameters. In real life, three-dimensional metamaterial structures, involving split-ring resonators (SRR), thin wires, and similar subwavelength elements, are designed to exhibit single negativity (imaginary refractive index) and double negativity (negative refractive index) behaviors. However, metamaterial elements have small details with respect to wavelength and they operate when they resonate. Then, their numerical models lead to large matrix equations that are also ill-conditioned, making their solutions extremely difficult, if not impossible. If performed accurately, homogenization simplifies the analysis of metamaterials, while new challenges arise due to extreme parameters. For example, a combination of zero-index (ZI) and near-zero-index (NZI) materials with ordinary media (metals, free space, etc.) results in a high-contrast problem, and numerical instabilities occur particularly due to huge values of wavelength. Similar difficulties arise when considering the plasmonic effects of metals at optical frequencies since they must be modeled as penetrable bodies with negative real permittivity, leading to imaginary index values. Different surface-integral-equation (SIE) formulations and broadband multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) implementations are extensively tested for accurate and efficient numerical solutions of ZI, NZI, imaginary-index, and negative-index materials. In addition to their computational simulations, metamaterial designs are fabricated with a low-cost inkjet-printing setup, which is based on using conventional printers that are modified and loaded with silver-based inks. Measurements demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating very low-cost three-dimensional metamaterials using simple inkjet printing.

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Citation Formats
H. İbili, “Computational simulation and realization of three-dimensional metamaterials with various exotic properties,” Thesis (M.S.) -- Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences. Electrical and Electronics Engineering., Middle East Technical University, 2019.