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Therapeutic philosophy: wittgenstein and heidegger

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2020
Temizler, Büke
Considering comparative studies in philosophy, the relationship between philosophies of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Martin Heidegger has a remarkable place in history. In this thesis, I attempt to discuss their philosophies to reveal their common suggestion to philosophy, which could be understood as a cure to the misleading formulations of philosophical problems. Their philosophical method begins with giving attention to the pre-theoretical attitude of human beings in ordinary life, in evaluating the philosophical notions. To explain, by way of beginning with this pre-theoretical attitude, both attempts to expose the bases of philosophical problems. The core point is to reveal that the insight of the starting point of the Heideggerian philosophy could be correctly apprehended by considering him as a Wittgensteinian therapist. Despite the commonalities of these two philosophers, there are considerable differences between them because of their aims and backgrounds in philosophy. Because of these differences, Heidegger provides the therapeutic philosophy with an “existentialist dimension. That is to say, Heidegger goes one step further, after emphasizing everyday life in approaching the problems and complexities of our language and thought. This step can be understood by questioning one's actions in daily life. Thus, it goes beyond exactly where Wittgenstein left off, turns to our tool of dissolution (everyday life) itself, and questions what we do with it in order to reveal the fundamental being of Dasein and its world. When this is considered a treatment of “inauthentic” being, the existential dimension of therapy is added to the picture.