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Multimodal integration in transit system based on CBD accessibility: the case of Ankara

Ayar Turan, Şeymanur
Individual automobile use appears as an attractive urban transport mode because it provides door-to-door travel regardless of how the origin-destination patterns or time variability of travel demand are complicated. Furthermore, policies and projects for accomodating the increasing car traffic in cities has given rise to creation of automobile oriented urban areas, which resulted in problems of traffic congestion, energy dependency, air pollution, social inequalities in accessibility, and finally decreasing benefits of automobile use. This brings the world into a position where the management of urban transportation demand through strategic supply of facilities is the main concern. In this respect, encouraging the use of public transportation modes is widely regarded as a sustainable alternative against automobile use. Significant investments in public transit in the recent years in terms of both capacity and technology are indicators of this reality. However, development of different public transit systems has failed to achieve providing an attractive alternative means of mobility that change the driving habit. Therefore, there has been an increasing need for integration of different modes competing in an urban transit sytem. Distinguishing between the dimensions of integration and the effects of some particular factors under these dimensions on the capacity of overcoming the space is vi needed to be scientificly searched in order to both discover how efficiently the existing integration facilities operate within a given geography and to guide transit providers on the specific policy areas for improving the overall performance –that is the capacity of overcoming the space. Departing from this point, the thesis aims to contribute local authorities and other urban transit providers to develop policies for multi-modal integration in transit system by addressing the limits of accessibility regions that an integrated system creates under a constant travel time budget. In particular it is intended to assess the impact of existing integration conditions of Kızılay-Çayyolu metro line and local bus services on its total capacity of offering access from the CBD –Kızılay- to urban parts in three assumptions of constant travel time budget as well as outlining the composition of total travel time costs –which stands for impedance- in space-time paths of the journeys, and to develop suggestions on how to improve the integration of urban rail and bus sytem particularly for time-geographic conditions of Çayyolu region in Ankara. In this general framework, the overall problem is formulated into a question: “How the system facilities of integrated multimodal transit system affects the accessible geography?” The concept of “accessible geography” refers to the spatial and statistical measures of the overall area that could be accessible from the central business district (CBD) by travelling on the means of integrated system of metro line and its feeder bus lines. The question includes the changes in the accessible geography in relation to the existing conditions of the schedule and route integration between the two modes.