Ground-Based Hyperspectral Image Surveillance Systems for Explosive Detection: Part II-Radiance to Reflectance Conversions

Koz, Alper
The usage of white references for reflectance conversion in a captured scene for potential ground-based hyperspectral image surveillance systems suffers from security, as it exposes the location of the system, and could be expensive for a broad application due to the high prices of standard Spectralons. In Part I of this two-part article, the state-of-the-art of ground-based hyperspectral imaging systems for explosive trace detection was discussed along with the future challenges for generic surveillance systems. The part II of the article proposes different approaches for reflection conversion to compensate the usage of white references at every capturing instant during surveillance, which is one of the main challenges of these systems. As an initial approach, recording the radiance of white reference only at the initialization of the system is tested by capturing an experimental setup in different days and times throughout a duration of two months. The correlations between the incident lights obtained from white references at different times, days, and orientations are compared. The effects of using a prerecorded white radiance for the reflectance conversion in the current scene are investigated. Second, a practical approach for reflectance calculation is tested by employing cheap-price reference objects having smooth characteristics in short-wave infrared spectrum, instead of expensive Spectralons. Finally, a novel reflectance conversion method is developed by using the reflectance of the static background materials in the scene rather than standard references by considering the stationary characteristics of surveillance systems. The proposed approaches are compared and verified on the baseline detection methods.


Ground-Based Hyperspectral Image Surveillance Systems for Explosive Detection: Part I-State of the Art and Challenges
Koz, Alper (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-12-01)
Existing ground-based hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems provide a good potential for standoff detection of explosives and their traces. The current technology, however, has still essential challenges to achieve a generic surveillance system for dynamic scenes with moving vehicles. In this regard, part I of this two-part article presents a state-of-the-art of existing HSI systems for explosive detection and discusses the future challenges for such a surveillance system. Considering the utilization of a lig...
Image Chain Simulation for Earth Observation Satellites
Alici, Kamil B.; Öktem, Sevinç Figen; Karci, Ozgur; Yilmaz, A. Serdar; Selimoglu, Ozgur (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-10-01)
We present a general-purpose end-to-end image chain simulation (ICS) that enables to assess the image quality of a satellite imager for Earth observations. The image chain consists of four main components: radiometry, atmosphere, optics, and detector. In particular, ICS first computes the input radiance from the reflectance values of a high-resolution input, and then calculates the image radiance by using the optical transfer function (OTF) of the overall system. This OTF contains all the distortion effects...
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Separate tracking of objects such as people and the luggages they carry is important for video surveillance applications as it would allow making higher level inferences and timely detection of potential threats. However, this is a challenging problem and in the literature, people and objects they carry are tracked as a single object. In this study, we propose using thermal imagery in addition to the visible band imagery for tracking in indoor applications (such as airports, metro or railway stations). We u...
Citation Formats
A. Koz, “Ground-Based Hyperspectral Image Surveillance Systems for Explosive Detection: Part II-Radiance to Reflectance Conversions,” IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, pp. 4754–4765, 2019, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: