Critical Review of Public Health Regulations of Titanium Dioxide, a Human Food Additive

Jovanovic, Boris
From 1916 to 2011, an estimated total of 165050000 metric tons of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment were produced worldwide. Current safety regulations on the usage of the TiO2 pigment as an inactive ingredient additive in human food are based on legislation from 1969 and are arguably outdated. This article compiles new research results to provide fresh data for potential risk reassessment. However, even after 45 years, few scientific research reports have provided truly reliable data. For example, administration of very high doses of TiO2 is not relevant to daily human uptake. Nevertheless, because dose makes the poison, the literature provides a valuable source for understanding potential TiO2 toxicity after oral ingestion. Numerous scientific articles have observed that TiO2 can pass and be absorbed by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract; can bioconcentrate, bioaccumulate, and biomagnify in the tissues of mammals and other vertebrates; has a very limited elimination rate; and can cause histopathological and physiological changes in various organs of animals. Such action is contrary to the 1969 decision to approve the use of TiO2 as an inactive ingredient in human food without an established acceptable daily intake, stating that neither significant absorption nor tissue storage following ingestion of TiO2 was possible. Thus, relevant governmental agencies should reassess the safety of TiO2 as an additive in human food and consider establishing an acceptable maximum daily intake as a precautionary measure. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:10-20. (c) 2014 The Author. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.


KARSH, H; Çulfaz, Ali; YUCEL, H (Elsevier BV, 1992-07-01)
Sorption properties of silicalite-1 samples of pure silica form for some parafinic and aromatic hydrocarbons of different molecular sizes were investigated. It was observed that sorption rates and apparent equilibrium capacities for critically sized molecules, m-xylene and o-xylene, depend on the sorption history of the sample. Sorption of m- and o-xylene proceeded extremely slowly on fresh samples of silicalite-1, whereas sorption rates of these molecules on silicalite-1 samples that had passed through a p...
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Demirer, Göksel Niyazi; Speece, RE (Wiley, 2000-01-01)
Performance of single- and two-stage pH-stat completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems for anaerobic acrylic acid biotransformation was investigated and compared. In the experiments, acetate was added with acrylic acid. Acetate concentration in both single- and two-stage reactors was continuously maintained at a nonlimiting concentration of 2000 +/- 200 mg/L. using a computer-controlled pH-stat system to allow observation of the effect of acrylate biotransformation on the more sensitive methanogenic st...
Electrochemical Formation of Brazing Alloys on Metal Substrates
Ulu, F.; Karakaya, İshak; Demirci, G.; ERDOĞAN, MUSTAFA (2013-11-01)
CusilTM is a eutectic brazing alloy of 72% silver, 28% copper composition; used to join different materials. The large difference between the standard reduction potentials of silver (0.799V) and copper (0.337V) makes their electrochemical codeposition difficult. A complex ion bath containing KAg(CN)2, CuCN and KCN was used to bring the reduction potentials closer together. The effect of electrolyte concentration on composition and microstructure of electrodeposited Ag-Cu films was investigated at 25oC. A cu...
Contrasting effects of biochar and hydrothermally treated coal gangue on leachability, bioavailability, speciation and accumulation of heavy metals by rapeseed in copper mine tailings
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The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of hydrothermally treated coal gangue (HTCG) with and without biochar (BC) on the leaching, bioavailability, and redistribution of chemical fractions of heavy metals (HMs) in copper mine tailing (Cu-MT). An increase in pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) were observed due to the addition of BC in combination with raw coal gangue (RCG) and HTCG. A high Cu and other HMs concentration in pore water (PW) and amended Cu-MT were ...
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Cleaner production assessment studies were conducted in a textile mill employing wool and acrylic fiber production and subsequent dyeing. A company-wide mass-balance analysis was performed. Various specific consumptions, emissions and waste generations were determined. The performance of the mill was evaluated based on BREF Documents. Water quality analysis indicated that process wastewaters from wool yarn softening, LP-VP printing machines and acrylic yarn washing could be reused in these processes, even w...
Citation Formats
B. Jovanovic, “Critical Review of Public Health Regulations of Titanium Dioxide, a Human Food Additive,” INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT, pp. 10–20, 2015, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: