Cathode edge displacement by voiding coupled with grain boundary grooving in bamboo like metallic interconnects by surface drift-diffusion under the capillary and electromigration forces

Ogurtani, Tarik Omer
Akyildiz, Oncu
The kinetics of cathode edge shrinkage and displacement (drift) coupled strongly with the grain boundary (GB) grooving is investigated using the novel mathematical model developed by Ogurtani, in sandwich type thin film bamboo lines. The computer simulations are performed under the constant current (CC) and the switch-over constant voltage (SOCV) operations. The cathode drift velocity and the cathode failure time show the existence of two distinct phases, depending upon the normalized electron wind intensity parameter X; the capillary (chi 0.01), having current exponent n, equal to 0 and 1, respectively. Analysis of various experimental data on the cathode drift velocity results a consistent value for the surface drift-diffusion coefficient, 1.0 x 10(-5) exp(-1.00 eV/kT) m(2) s(-1), for copper interconnects exposed to some contaminations during the processing and testing stages. This is found to be an excellent agreement with the experimental values reported in the literature after applying the proper 1/kT correction on the apparent activation enthalpy associated with Nernst-Einstein mobility relationship. The complete cathode failure time (CCFT) due to the cathode area shrinkage by voiding is also formulated by inverse scaling and normalization procedures, which show exactly the same capillary and EM dominating regimes. This formula can be used to predict very accurate CCFT for metallic lines with bamboo-like, near-bamboo, and even with polycrystalline structures by proper calculation of the cathode-edge path length (CEPL) parameter, in terms of the actual line width, the thickness and the grain size.


Intersonic shear crack growth along weak planes
Rosakis, Ares J.; Samudrala, Omprakash; Çöker, Demirkan (Informa UK Limited, 2000-01-01)
Classical dynamic fracture theories predict the Rayleigh surface wave speed (cR) to be the limiting speed of propagation for mode-I cracks in constitutively homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic materials subjected to remote loading. For mode-II cracks, propagating along prescribed straight line paths, the same theories, while excluding the possibility of crack growth in the speed regime between cR and the shear wave speed, cs, do not exclude intersonic (cs<υ<cl) crack tip speeds. In the present study, we ...
The defect state of Yb-doped ZnO nanoparticles using thermoluminescence study
Hasanlı, Nızamı (Elsevier BV, 2019-09-01)
Shallow trapping centers in Yb-doped ZnO nanoparticles were determined using thermoluminescence (TL) measurements applied in the 10-300 K temperature region. Undoped and Yb-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. TL glow curve of undoped nano-particles presented three peaks around 56, 108 and 150 K whereas one additional peak around 83 K was observed in the TL curve of Yb-doped ZnO nano-particles. The increase of Yb concentration in the nanoparticles increased the TL intensity of this ad...
JELINEK, R; Özkar, Saim; OZIN, GA (1992-01-01)
23Na double rotation NMR (DOR) provides information on site-specific adsorption of guest molecules within the porous framework of sodium zeolite Y. Anchoring of molybdenum-hexacarbonyl to extraframework Na+ cations in particular locations within the large α-cavities is detected. Changes of the chemical environments of the Na+ cations are observed upon loading trimethylphosphine molecules. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements yield insight on dynamic aspects of the anchoring sodium cations.
Irreversible thermodynamics of triple junctions during the intergranular void motion under the electromigration forces
Ogurtani, TO; Oren, EE (Elsevier BV, 2005-06-01)
A rigorous reformulation of internal entropy production and the rate of entropy flow is developed for multi-component systems consisting of heterophases, interfaces and/or surfaces. The result is a well-posed moving boundary value problem describing the dynamics of curved interfaces and surfaces associated with voids and/or cracks that are intersected by grain boundaries. Extensive computer simulations are performed for void configuration evolution during intergranular motion. In particular we simulate evol...
Microstructural and texture evolution during thermo-hydrogen processing of Ti6Al4V alloys produced by electron beam melting
Dogu, Merve Nur; ESEN, ZİYA; Davut, Kemal; Tan, Evren; Gumus, Berkay; Dericioğlu, Arcan Fehmi (Elsevier BV, 2020-10-01)
The present study was conducted to reveal the effects of building angles and post heat-treatments (2-step Thermo-Hydrogen Processing (THP) and conventional annealing treatment) on the density, microstructure and texture of Ti6Al4V alloy parts produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM). The results showed that regardless of the building angle; the density, microstructure and crystallographic texture (defined with respect to building angle) of the as-produced samples were identical; having Widmanstatten a struct...
Citation Formats
T. O. Ogurtani and O. Akyildiz, “Cathode edge displacement by voiding coupled with grain boundary grooving in bamboo like metallic interconnects by surface drift-diffusion under the capillary and electromigration forces,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, pp. 921–942, 2008, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: