Last glacial climate oscillations and sudden environmental changes investigated in stalagmites from southwest Sulawesi, western Pacific

Unal Imer, Ezgi
Uysal, Ibrahim Tonguc
St Pierre, Emma
Zhao, Jian-Xin
Shulmeister, James
We investigated two stalagmites from the Saripa Cave and Bumi Cave in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia, using high-precision U-series dating and high-resolution trace element and C-O-Sr isotope analysis. The growth record (from 10.4 +/- 0.1 ka to 77.4 +/- 0.9 ka) of the Saripa Cave stalagmite (SR04-ST3) is fragmented with two major (at the top: 10.4-11.6 ka and middle: 43.8-44.7 ka sections of the stalagmite) and some short (middle and bottom sections) growth phases, interrupted by long-lasting growth hiatuses. Both the timing of the growth phases and the delta O-18 values for different growth phases are correlated with those of cold/dry (similar to 22 ka and 43.8-44.7 ka) and wet/warm periods (e.g., Greenland Interstadials 12, 14, and 21) in the northern hemisphere speleothem records, displaying both anti-phase and in-phase relationships with the northern hemisphere records. This observation is unique in the Western Pacific tropical region, mostly likely because the Saripa Cave is located within the region of the latitudinally migrating Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), whereby the rainfall seasons may have changed through time depending on the mean latitude of the ITCZ. The Saripa Cave stalagmite contains textural laminae, which are here interpreted as a record of rapid environmental changes, possibly caused by volcanic eruptions at around 22.55 ka and 44.73 ka BP. The Bumi Cave record (stalagmite BC-09-3-C), on the other hand, presents very little variation in stable isotope and trace element compositions between 26.8 ka and 18.5 ka and does not seem to be influenced by any possible volcanic activity. More detailed future studies investigating millimeter- to submillimeter-scale geochemical time-series constrained by accurate ages in speleothems can be useful in unfolding the effects of eruptions and provide parallel records of climate and sudden environmental changes.


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The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) exposes metasediment rocks overlain by Cretaceous ophiolites and intruded by granitoids. Following late Cretaceous exhumation of its high-grade metamorphic rocks, the CACC started to collide with the Central Pontides of southern Eurasia in the latest Cretaceous to Paleocene. Here, we present the sedimentary, stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Cicekdagi Basin, located in the northwest of the CACC. Magnetostratigraphic dating, supported by Ar-40/Ar-39 ...
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Hf-Pb-Os isotope compositions and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance variations are used to evaluate the mantle source characteristics and possible effects of differentiation processes in lavas from western Turkey, where the eruption of Late Miocene to Quaternary OIB-type intraplate mafic alkaline lavas followed pre-Middle Miocene convergent margin-type volcanism. Concentrations of Os, Ir, and Ru (IPGE) in the OIB-type intraplate lavas decrease with fractionation for primitive melts (MgO > 10 wt%), ...
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In the Bogazkale region (Corum, Central Anatolia), pieces of Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere are found in an ophiolitic melange. Within the melange, there are occurrences of isolated diabase dykes that intrude serpentinized and carbonatized ultramafics. The diabases are phaneritic, holocrystalline and equigranular, and consist of plagioclase and hornblende as the main primary mineral phases. They have all undergone low-grade alteration, to varying extents, as reflected by the presence of secondary minerals, ...
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Geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopes of the host rocks and magmatic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) collected from the Oligocene Nodoushan Plutonic Complex (NPC) in the central part of the Urumieh -Dokhtar Magmatic Belt (UDMB) were studied in order to better understand the magmatic and geodynamic evolution of the UDMB. New U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the NPC was assembled incrementally over ca. 5 m.y., during two main episodes at 30.52 +/- 0.11 Ma and 30.06 +/- 0.10 Ma in the early Oligocene (middle Rupelian)...
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Citation Formats
E. Unal Imer, I. T. Uysal, E. St Pierre, J.-X. Zhao, and J. Shulmeister, “Last glacial climate oscillations and sudden environmental changes investigated in stalagmites from southwest Sulawesi, western Pacific,” TURKISH JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, pp. 221–241, 2020, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: