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Danish and other European experiences in managing shallow lakes

Jeppesen, Erik
Sondergaard, Martin
Lauridsen, Torben L.
Kronvang, Brian
Bekiloglu, Meryern
Lammens, Eddy
Jensen, Henning S.
Koehler, Jan
Ventela, Anne-Mari
Tarvainen, Marjo
Tatrai, Istvan
For a century eutrophication has been the most serious environmental threat to lakes in the densely populated or agricultural areas of Europe. During the last decades, however, major efforts have been used to reduce the external nutrient loading, not least from point sources. Despite these comprehensive efforts, lake eutrophication remains a major problem. Today, the highest pollution input is derived from diffuse sources mainly from agricultural land in lake catchments. We describe the actions taken to reduce the external nutrient loading and the lake responses to these actions as well as the use of additional methods to reinforce recovery, such as biomanipulation. We further discuss resilience and short and long-term responses. We highlight the Danish experiences, but add several examples from restoration measures taken elsewhere in Europe. We also briefly discuss how a potential change in climate may affect lake responses to diminished nutrient loading.