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Adapting the quality function deployment method to design appropriate building facades

2020-11
Deljavan, Nastaran
Advances in technology have changed the lifestyles of most people around the world, thus causing an increase in energy consumption and environmental pollution. Since buildings’ facade can play an important role in providing human comfort, decreasing energy consumption, and environmental pollution, facade design should integrate various technologies together by considering construction materials, cost-effectiveness, occupant’s requirements, and climatic zones. Considering all of these design parameters together and their complex relationships with each other is not easily achieved by applying conventional design methods. Hence, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method, which is based on considering users’ needs throughout the design and production phase of industrial products, was studied and the possibility to adapt it to design appropriate building facades was explored. In this dissertation, a framework, which consists of four phases, was defined by adapting the QFD method. These phases are; Design targets phase, Occupants’ requirements phase, Design techniques phase, and Facade design phase. These phases consist of various steps including analysis of 49 case studies, two questionnaire surveys, five Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) matrices, and two House of Quality (HoQ) matrices. To complete these phases, the primary and secondary design targets were determined from a comprehensive literature review and analysis of 49 case studies. Then, this information was used to prepare questions for two dedicated questionnaire surveys regarding the design targets, occupants’ requirements, and technical solutions. The surveys were fulfilled by identifying the preferences of occupants regarding their requirements and design targets in the first survey, and preferences of architects about technical solutions and design targets in the second survey. These surveys were conducted with 120 occupants (66 from Turkey & 54 from Iran) and 82 architects (40 from Turkey & 42 from Iran). The data from the questionnaire surveys regarding the primary and secondary design targets were used in five AHP matrices to calculate their priorities. The data from the questionnaire surveys regarding the occupants’ requirements and technical solutions were used in the first HoQ matrix to determine the priorities of the technical solutions. In order to calculate the priorities of the appropriate facade systems, output of the first HoQ matrix was transferred to the second HoQ matrix to find their correlation with facade systems determined from the case study buildings. According to the results of the QFD matrices, it is found that adapting QFD method for architectural design improves the design process. Consequently, the occupants’ requirements and architects’ opinions regarding the complex design parameters were transferred from one design phase to the other without getting lost to achieve a universally acceptable and appropriate facade design. In conclusion, the QFD framework proposed in this dissertation can be used not only to design appropriate facade systems but also other building components, even entire buildings, by considering user requirements.