In vitro and in vivo properties of graphene-incorporated scaffolds for bone defect repair

Jodati, Hossein
Yilmaz, Bengi
Evis, Zafer
The employment of graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, is extending from bioimaging and fabrications of biosensors to drug delivery and tissue engineering in the biomedical area. Graphene family-incorporated scaffolds, used in bone tissue engineering and bone regenerative medicine, profit superior properties of these materials, such as enhanced mechanical properties, large surface area, and the existence of functional groups. At the same time, problems related to cytotoxicity and adverse immune response of graphene family are solved when they are applied to produce 3-dimensional scaffolds. The objective of this review is to focus on in vitro properties of scaffolds consisting of graphene or its derivatives, especially osteogenic and antibacterial properties, as well as the influence of graphene and its derivatives on in vivo performances of implanted bone scaffolds. The positive effect of graphene and its two derivatives on attachment, and cell proliferation, as well as in vitro osteogenic differentiation of different cells was undeniable. Besides, the synergetic outcome of using graphene family on the antibacterial feature of scaffolds, especially incorporation with the silver element, was effective. Moreover, successful treatment of critical-sized bone defects was reported during in vivo preclinical tests when graphene or its derivatives-incorporated scaffolds were used. However, the limited number of in vivo studies should be considered as one of the main shortcomings to use graphene as a promising candidate for treating bone defects. It is anticipated that the increased number of well-designed preclinical studies could improve the applications of graphene incorporated scaffolds in bone tissue engineering/regeneration, and find out explanations and appropriate solutions to possible long-term toxicity and nonbiodegradability of these materials.
Ceramics International


Evidence for Nonradiative Energy Transfer in Graphene-Oxide-Based Hybrid Structures
Yeltik, Aydan; Kucukayan-Dogu, Gokce; Guzelturk, Burak; Fardindoost, Somayeh; Keleştemur, Yusuf; Demir, Hilmi Volkan (2013-12-01)
Solution processed graphene variants including graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are promising materials for potential optoelectronic applications. To date, efficiency of the excitation energy transfer into GO and RGO thin layers has not been investigated in terms of donor-acceptor separation distance. In the present work, we study nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) from CdSe/CdS quantum dots into single and/or double layer GO or RGO using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We obse...
Hybrid transparent conductive electrode structure for solar cell application
Altuntepe, Ali; Olgar, Mehmet Ali; Erkan, Serkan; Hasret, Onur; Kececi, Ahmet Emin; Kokbudak, Gamze; TOMAKİN, MURAT; Seyhan, Ayse; Turan, Raşit; Zan, Recep (2021-12-01)
This study draws on our experiences with graphene to perform a hybrid TCO structure composed of AZO and graphene. We first set out to enhance the electrical and optical properties of AZO to enable its use especially in the field of solar cell. Hence, in our study, we deposited various thicknesses of AZO thin films on glass substrates and transferred single layer graphene on them to realize the formation of hybrid TCO structure. Among the various AZO film thicknesses, the optimum one, 300 nm, was determined ...
Design of Carbon Nanotube Modified Conducting Polymer for Biosensing Applications
Ozdemir, Caglar; Tuncagil, Sevinc; ODACI DEMİRKOL, DİLEK; TİMUR, SUNA; Toppare, Levent Kamil (2011-01-01)
An electrochemical biosensor with improved performance was designed through the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto conducting polymer of 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzenamine (SNS-NH2) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For the optimization and characterization of the biosensor, pH profile, enzyme loading, reproducibility, operational stability experiments were carried out. It was found that the use of CNTs in a biosensing system enhanced the biosensor response. The linear relati...
Synthesis and functionalization of graphene oxide nanocomposites for anticancer drug delivery
Kamal Mohammed Ahmed Hassan, Heba; Evis, Zafer; Tezcaner, Ayşen; Department of Biomedical Engineering (2022-6-27)
Graphene, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) their derivatives and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), all have a wide range of applications in biomedical applications, particularly anticancer drug delivery, due to their large surface area, chemical and mechanical stability, and good biocompatibility. The first goal of this research is to improve the chemistry and solubility of rGO by doping it with boron and decorating it with AuNPs (Au-B-rGO), as well as to improve the loading efficiency of the anticancer drug doxorubi...
Palladium nanoparticles supported on chemically derived graphene: An efficient and reusable catalyst for the dehydrogenation of ammonia borane
Metin, Onder; Kayhan, Emine; Özkar, Saim; Schneider, Jorg J. (2012-05-01)
Chemically derived graphene (CDG) was prepared by hydrazine hydrate reduction of graphene oxide and used as support for palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) generated ex situ with controllable particle size and dispersion. The Pd NPs supported on CDG were well characterized by using a combination of advance analytical techniques and employed as catalyst in the dehydrogenation and hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) in organic solvents and aqueous solutions, respectively. Monodisperse Pd NPs of 4.5 nm were prepare...
Citation Formats
H. Jodati, B. Yilmaz, and Z. Evis, “In vitro and in vivo properties of graphene-incorporated scaffolds for bone defect repair,” Ceramics International, pp. 0–0, 2021, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: