Impact of Pre-incubators on Entrepreneurial Activities in Turkey: Problems, Successes, and Policy Recommendations

Kepenek, Emek Barış
Eser, Zeliha
Innovation is a key driver of economic growth the world over. One key initiative in innovative societies is entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship can be considered a driving force for economic growth, employment creation, and competitiveness in societies. However, a crucial issue is the ability to produce knowledge and train a skilled workforce that has a proper entrepreneurial mindset. In this regard, there are three main actors: public governance, universities, and the private sector. Universities need to become more innovative and entrepreneurial—in contrast to their traditional approach in teaching and research. They need to play an important role as both producers and disseminators of knowledge in entrepreneurial activities. The concept of preincubation centers, which is the central focus of this paper, is one outcome of such activities. By providing targeted resources and services, incubation is a business-support process that accelerates the successful development of start-ups and companies. Incubation ideas focus on already established firms—either start-up or senior firms; however, pre-incubation centers focus on the early-stage ideas of students and entrepreneurs. This study addresses the impact of services offered in pre-incubation centers—namely infrastructure, coaching, and business networks—on the graduation rates of incubator participants in Turkey. Based on interview data with 23 of 40 pre-incubation managers, we found that it is necessary to develop synergy among universities and achieve local economic alignment. The educational system should produce individuals with requisite skills: at that point, they can become active in furthering government policies to promote entrepreneurship. In this context, entrepreneurial universities play an important role as both producers and disseminators of knowledge. University-based incubation centers will become key actors for promoting entrepreneurial culture in societies.


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Citation Formats
E. B. Kepenek and Z. Eser, “Impact of Pre-incubators on Entrepreneurial Activities in Turkey: Problems, Successes, and Policy Recommendations,” 2016, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: