Genomic characterization of cephalosporin, quinolone and macrolide resistance in Salmonella enterica

Download
2022-1-12
Konyali, Diala
Salmonella infections are considered a significant burden in developing and developed countries. Each year, Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) causes more than 90 million cases of gastroenteritis, 85% of which are food-borne. Salmonellosis is usually self-limiting in healthy adults but might be severe in risk groups. Fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and cephalosporins are recommended when antimicrobial treatment is necessary. However, Salmonella is increasingly showing resistance to these antimicrobials by chromosomal mutations in DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase, conferring plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) as well as having some of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, such as blaCTX and blaCMY. This study determined the resistance of 373 Salmonella isolates, isolated from food, animals, humans, and the environment between 2005 and 2020. Phenotypic examination of this resistance was carried out by disk diffusion method against ampicillin, ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, azithromycin, and kanamycin. Then isolates that show resistance to any of the following antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin were tested by PCR and gel electrophoresis for the presence of quinolone resistance genes and beta-lactamase genes as well as macrolide resistance gene. Isolates that conveyed resistance to fluoroquinolones were more than 32% (122/373). We observed an increased prevalence of mutated parC and gyrA genes accounting for the quinolone resistance. On the other hand, isolates that exhibited resistance to ceftriaxone were 2% accounting for 8/373. As for macrolides, 42% (106/250) showed resistance phenotypically, of which 10% harbored mphA gene. MDR isolates that possessed resistance genes were then further sequenced and characterized.

Suggestions

Isolation and Characterization of Salmonella Bacteriophages
DENİZ, Aysu; Soyer, Yeşim; Department of Food Engineering (2022-2-03)
Numerous foodborne infections and outbreaks are associated with Salmonella which makes it a challenge in terms of human health and economy. Therefore, reducing the prevalence of Salmonella in food and food processing areas is of great importance. Antibiotics are the substances that are commonly used in various stages of food production in order to fight against Salmonella. However, concerns related with the antibiotic use like antibiotic resistance give rise to pursuit of safer methods to eliminate Salmonel...
Virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes transfer mechanism between Salmonella Strains by means of Salmonella Genomic Island 1
Namlı, Şahin; Soyer, Yeşim; Department of Food Engineering (2018)
Salmonella, is responsible for significant part of the food borne diseases around the world and isolated abundantly from the food samples. In recent years, with the increasing trend of multidrug-resistance, Salmonella become an important threat for public health. Drug resistance leads inefficiency of antibiotic treatment and it is seemed as a very important problem worldwide as well for Turkey. Drug resistance acceptance mechanism has not been understood yet especially for Salmonella. Salmonella Genomic Isl...
Reconstruction of the temporal signaling network in salmonella infected human cells
Budak, Güngör; Aydın Son, Yeşim; Tunçbağ, Nurcan; Department of Bioinformatics (2016)
Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen whose mechanism of infection is usually through food sources. The pathogen proteins are translocated into the host cells to change the host signaling mechanisms either by activating or inhibiting the host proteins. In order to obtain a more complete view of the biological processes and the signaling networks and to reconstruct the temporal signaling network of the human host, we have used two network modeling approaches, the Prize-collecting Steiner Forest (PCSF) ...
Development of nucleic acid based lateral flow immunochromatographic test platform for salmonella detection
Bulut, Onur; Öktem, Hüseyin Avni; Department of Biology (2014)
Foodborne diseases have been a crucial problem for the public health. Various agents transmitted by food cause these diseases. However, Salmonella accounts for most of the cases leading to most of the hospitalization and even death. Therefore, rapid detection of Salmonella is a considerable step in order to improve food safety and minimize outbreaks. Nucleic acid based biosensors are fast, simple, economic, easy-to-use and do not require trained personnel or high-cost equipments when compared to the current...
Investigation of plasmid mediated colistin resistance phenotypically and genotypically in Salmonella and E. coli isolates in Turkey
Tok, Seray; Soyer, Yeşim; Department of Food Engineering (2022-5-31)
Today, colistin is used as the last resort antimicrobial against Gram-negative bacteria. Excessive use of colistin caused resistance among bacteria. Recent studies showed presence of plasmid mediated mcr genes, encoding colistin resistance that can be transferred horizontally between different bacterial species. In this study, it was aimed to investigate colistin resistance and change in colistin resistance rate in E. coli and Salmonella isolates over time from different cities in Turkey. For this aim, we...
Citation Formats
D. Konyali, “Genomic characterization of cephalosporin, quinolone and macrolide resistance in Salmonella enterica,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2022.