Durgut, Bilge
Salix alba and Populus nigra are two important tree species of riparian ecosystems. With a great ecologic and economic significance, they are naturally distributed in almost all river basins of Turkey. The genetic structures of these species in two river basins in Turkey were studied using eight common microsatellite markers to both species to reveal the impacts of habitat fragmentation. Therefore, the studied rivers were selected to represent a highly fragmented river, and a protected river from habitat fragmentation which are respectively Kızılırmak River and Melendiz River of Ihlara Valley. For the study, 132 S. alba and 84 P. nigra genotypes were sampled from four different populations of Kızılırmak while 29 S. alba and 25 P. nigra genotypes were sampled from Ihlara. Various population genetics analyses were performed with the obtained data to evaluate the efficiency and diversity of microsatellite loci, genetic diversity and structure of the populations of two species, effects of habitat fragmentation, and other possible human-related activities on these species. The results of these analyses demonstrated that habitat fragmentation and other human-mediated activities had important effects on the genetic structures and diversities of both species. Differentially, P. nigra was detected as it was affected by these human activities more than S. alba. The reason behind this is that P. nigra has been more commonly transported by humans and commercially cultivated in Anatolia by comparing to S. alba. The results indicate that the expected diversity levels were low (mean uHe values are 0.61 for S. alba and 0.59 for P. nigra) and the excess of observed heterozygosity levels was found (mean Ho values are 0.63 for S. alba and 0.87 for P. nigra). This suggests the recent bottleneck events causing the loss of allelic diversity in both species. The difference between Ho and uHe values was greater for P. nigra while these values were closer to each other for S. alba. It seems the populations of S. alba were close to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium which could be caused by less severity of past experienced bottleneck events of the species. Furthermore, the differentiation between Kızılırmak and Ihlara populations was found to be highly significant for both species (FST values are 0.05 and 0.14 for S. alba and P. nigra, respectively). Four populations of Kızılırmak were also differentiated from each other significantly for both species (FST values are 0.02 for both S. alba and P. nigra). This difference between the FST values also points out the wild nature of S. alba populations is still maintained, but the high vulnerability of P. nigra populations to habitat fragmentation and other human-related activities. Genetic resources of these two important species of riparian ecosystems need to be protected from unregulated human activities including habitat destruction and fragmentation caused by several agricultural and urbanization practices, and improper afforestation and cultivation policies. The information generated from this study is valuable for developing both successful conservation and breeding programs, and new ways to decrease the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation on these two species.


Genetic differentiation between clone collections and natural populations of European black poplar (Populus nigra L.) in turkey
Çiftçi, Asiye; Kucukosmanoglu, Filiz; Karahan, Alptekin; Kaya, Zeki (2017-06-01)
The European black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is an ecologically and economically important tree species for Turkey. The important and major genetic resources of species for future breeding and ex situ conservation purposes have been archived in a clone bank in Ankara by selecting clones from natural populations and old plantations throughout Turkey. There is no study to date assessing genetic composition these materials. Two-hundred-thirty-three P. nigra clones from six geographic region of Turkey (clone co...
Genetic structure of black pine (Pinus nigra ARNOLD subspecies pallasiana) populations sampled from the Bolkar Mountains
Tolun, AA; Velioğlu, E; Çengel, Burcu N; Kaya, Zeki (2000-01-01)
In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of genetic diversity among Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra ARNOLD subspecies pallasiana) populations sampled in Bolkar Mountains and to recommend the potential populations which may be suitable for in situ conservation of genetic resources in this species, isoenzymes from 14 enzyme systems were investigated by starch gel electrophoresis. For this reason, open pollinated seed megagametophytes of half-sib families originated from the four populations (Camliyay...
Consequences of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and structure of Salix alba L. populations in two major river systems of Turkey
Degirmenci, Funda O.; Acar, Pelin; Kaya, Zeki (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-08-01)
Salix alba L. (white willow) is an indicator species of a healthy riparian ecosystem with great renewable energy potential in Turkey though habitats of the species in many river ecosystems are highly degraded or fragmented. Impacts of this degradation of river ecosystems on the magnitude and pattern of genetic diversity are not known. This study was aimed at assessing the genetic structure of S. alba populations in two highly degraded and fragmented river systems (the Goksu and Kzlrmak rivers) in Turkey wit...
Genetic diversity and population structure of Salix alba across river systems in Turkey and their importance in conservation management
Özdemir Değirmenci, Funda; Çiftçi, Asiye; Acar, Pelin; Kaya, Zeki (2022-03-01)
Background Salix alba is a pioneer species of river ecosystems throughout Turkey. Its genetic diversity and population structure across these ecosystems is currently unknown. Aims We investigated genetic diversity in Turkish S. alba to assess factors likely to shape the genetic structure of the species and to assist with conservation recommendations. Methods Six hundred and forty-six individuals from 10 major river systems in Turkey were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. Between one and five sub-po...
Genetic variation in wood specific gravity of half-sib families of Pinus nigra subsp pallasiana tested at the juvenile stage: Implications for early selection
Kaya, Zeki; Temerit, A; Vurdu, H (2003-01-01)
Seeds from 7 populations (total of 281 half-sib families, progeny test) and 35 seed stands (provenance test) representing natural range of Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana) were sown in a forest nursery in Ankara in 1990 and raised until age 3. Stem wood specific gravity (WSG) of all seedlings was determined at age of 3. The results of this study indicated that WSG did not vary significantly neither among the 7 populations (ranging from 0.41 to 0.42) nor among 35 seed stands (ranging from...
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