Phylogeographic and Morphological Analysis of Botrylloides niger Herdman, 1886 from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea

Temiz, Berivan
Öztürk, Esra
Blanchoud, Simon
Karahan, Arzu
Botrylloides niger (class Ascidiacea) is an invasive marine filter-feeding invertebrate that is believed to originate from the West Atlantic region. This species of colonial tunicate has been observed in several locations along the coasts of Israel and around the Suez Canal, but it has not yet been reported on the coasts of the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea (NEMS), suggesting an ongoing Lessepsian migration. However, the extent of this invasion might be concealed by reports of other potentially misidentified species of Botrylloides, given that the strong morphological similarities within this genus renders taxonomical identification particularly challenging. In this study, we performed a phylogeographic and morphological analysis of B. niger in the NEMS. We collected 238 samples from 8 sampling stations covering 824 km of the coastlines of NEMS. We reported 14 different morphotypes, of which the orange-brown, orange, and brown-striped morphs were the most abundant. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) as a DNA barcode marker, we identified 4 haplotypes. The COI haplotypes clustered with the reference B. niger sequences from GenBank and differed significantly from the sister Botrylloides species. We confirmed our identification using three additional barcoding markers (Histone 3, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA), which all matched with over 99% similarity to reference sequences. In addition, we monitored a station for a year and conducted a temporal analysis of the collected colonies. The colonies were absent during the winter and spring, while new colonies were established in the summer and expanded during autumn. We performed demographic population analysis on our spatial data that identified a possible population subdivision at a sampling site, which might have been caused by local freshwater input. Herein, we present the first report on the presence of Botrylloides niger in the NEMS. This study represents a key step toward understanding the diversity and the propagation of this highly invasive species of colonial ascidians, both within the Mediterranean basin as well as globally.


Phylogeography of Turkish Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) Based on mtDNA Sequences
Çelikgil, Atila; Kükrer, Mert; Bilgin, Cemal Can (null; 2019-07-09)
There are 26 recognized subspecies of honeybees throughout the world and 5 of them are distributed in Turkey. Due to the migratory beekeepers and queen trade practices in addition to other anthropogenic factors, population structure of these 5 subspecies are under threat and require further research followed by immediate establishment of conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to determine the phylogeography and biodiversity of Turkish Honeybees. In order to assess genetic variability and populatio...
Phylogeography of Calanus helgolandicus and the Black Sea copepod Calanus euxinus, with notes on Pseudocalanus elongatus (Copepoda, Calanoida)
Unal, Ebru; Frost, Bruce W.; Armbrust, Virginia; Kıdeyş, Ahmet Erkan (2006-01-01)
Calanus helgolandicus is a widespread epipelagic copepod species whose geographical range extends from the temperate Atlantic Ocean to the northern Mediterranean Sea. Calanus euxinus, recently designated as a distinct species though closely related to C. helgolandicus, occurs in the Black Sea. Very subtle morphological differences distinguish the two species. Pseudocalanus elongatus has a similar geographic range including North Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. In this study, population ...
Phylogeography and Population Genetics of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) From Turkey Based on COI-COII Sequence Data
Solorzano, Cesar D.; Szalanski, Allen L.; Kence, Meral; McKern, Jackie A.; Austin, James W.; Kence, Aykut (2009-01-01)
A study that involved DNA sequencing of COI-COII intergenic region of the mitochondrial DNA genome of Apis mellifera honey bees from Turkey was conducted to determine the population genetics and phylogeographic structure of this species from seven distinct areas of Turkey. From the 132 honey bees subjected to DNA sequencing, a total of 12 mitotypes of A. mellifera "C" lineage were observed, of which only one mitotype, C 13, had been reported previously. The most common mitotype, C12, accounted for 47% of th...
Phylogeny and genetic variation of Reticulitermes (Isoptera : Rhinotermitidae) from the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East
Austin, James W.; Szalanski, Allen L.; Ghayourfar, Rahim; Kence, Aykut; Gold, Roger E. (2006-01-01)
Recent genetic evaluations of R. lucifugus from France and Italy with R. lucifugus from Turkey suggests that these geographic groups likely constitute separate species. A more extensive review of eastern Mediterranean termites is needed to clarify their respective classifications. DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA region was used to examine genetic variation in the termite genus Reticulitermes Holmgren from eastern Europe and the Middle East. Sequencing of a 438 bp region from 39 individ...
Çiftçi, Ozan; Kıdeyş , Ahmet Erkan; Department of Marine Biology and Fisheries (2016-9-25)
Cataloguing the biodiversity of marine ecosystems is critical for several implications: e.g. protecting species under threat, detecting alien species or ecosystem based management etc. The eastern Mediterranean Sea is a hot spot for bioinvasion, however its biodiversity had been poorly studied. In the view of the ongoing changes in the Mediterranean, fish and invertebrate biodiversity of Mersin Bay were evaluated in this study by using DNA barcoding techniques, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase ...
Citation Formats
B. Temiz, E. Öztürk, S. Blanchoud, and A. Karahan, “Phylogeographic and Morphological Analysis of Botrylloides niger Herdman, 1886 from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea,” DIVERSITY, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1–15, 2023, Accessed: 00, 2023. [Online]. Available: