Phylogeography and Population Genetics of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) From Turkey Based on COI-COII Sequence Data

Solorzano, Cesar D.
Szalanski, Allen L.
Kence, Meral
McKern, Jackie A.
Austin, James W.
Kence, Aykut
A study that involved DNA sequencing of COI-COII intergenic region of the mitochondrial DNA genome of Apis mellifera honey bees from Turkey was conducted to determine the population genetics and phylogeographic structure of this species from seven distinct areas of Turkey. From the 132 honey bees subjected to DNA sequencing, a total of 12 mitotypes of A. mellifera "C" lineage were observed, of which only one mitotype, C 13, had been reported previously. The most common mitotype, C12, accounted for 47% of the Apis mellifera "C" lineage samples and was found in 13 of the 22 sampled locations. This mitotype was also the basal ancestral mitotype based on TCS spanning tree analysis. The greatest amount of genetic diversity was observed in Bursa, where 4 mitotypes of the A. mellifera "C" lineage were unique to this location. Wright's F-statistics revealed that Artvin and Bursa were the most genetically distinct locations relative to the other sampled locations. Applying a molecular clock, Turkish A. mellifera "C" lineage mitotypes have been diverging for approximately 10,000 to 16,500 yr. based on phylogenetic analysis. In addition, two A. m. syriaca samples were observed from Hatay, Turkey. Phylogenetic analysis which included other A. mellifera subspecies confirms the subspecies relationships of A. mellifera "C" lineage, and A. m. syriaca. this study corroborates other studies that show Turkey to be a reservoir of genetically distinct populations of A. mellifera "C" lineage, which can be useful for developing genetic conservation strategies for A. mellifera.


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We analyzed the genetic structure of 11 honeybee (Apis mellifera L) populations from Turkey and one from Cyprus using 9 microsatellite marker loci. Heterozygosity levels, mean number of alleles per population, number of diagnostic alleles, and pairwise F-ST values were computed for the populations studied. Heterozygosity levels were found to range between 0.54 and 0.68. We detected high levels of genetic divergence among the populations based on pairwise F-ST values; 50 of 66 pairwise F-ST values were signi...
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Six enzyme systems were studied to determine the genetic variability in honeybee populations in Turkey. Ten morphometric characters were also measured to determine the extent of morphometric variation. Out of six enzyme systems, four were found to be polymorphic with 16 allozymes. The average heterozygosity was calculated as 0.072 +/- 0.007. Morphometric and electrophoretic variables were equally effective in discriminating honeybee populations. European and Anatolian honeybees were separated on the first a...
Phylogeography of Turkish Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) Based on mtDNA Sequences
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There are 26 recognized subspecies of honeybees throughout the world and 5 of them are distributed in Turkey. Due to the migratory beekeepers and queen trade practices in addition to other anthropogenic factors, population structure of these 5 subspecies are under threat and require further research followed by immediate establishment of conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to determine the phylogeography and biodiversity of Turkish Honeybees. In order to assess genetic variability and populatio...
Ivanova, Evgeniya N.; Petrov, Plamen; Bouga, Maria; Emmanouel, Nicholas G.; TUNCA, RAHŞAN İVGİN; Kence, Meral (2010-01-01)
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In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of genetic diversity among Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra ARNOLD subspecies pallasiana) populations sampled in Bolkar Mountains and to recommend the potential populations which may be suitable for in situ conservation of genetic resources in this species, isoenzymes from 14 enzyme systems were investigated by starch gel electrophoresis. For this reason, open pollinated seed megagametophytes of half-sib families originated from the four populations (Camliyay...
Citation Formats
C. D. Solorzano, A. L. Szalanski, M. Kence, J. A. McKern, J. W. Austin, and A. Kence, “Phylogeography and Population Genetics of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) From Turkey Based on COI-COII Sequence Data,” SOCIOBIOLOGY, pp. 237–246, 2009, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: