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Production and biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from thermomyces lanuginosus

Astarcı, Erhan
Polyphenol oxidases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of certain phenolic substrates to quinones in the presence of molecular oxygen. Polyphenol oxidases are widely used in several applications. In food industry, they are used for enhancement of flavor in coffee, tea and cocoa production, and determination of food quality. In medicine, they have several uses in treatments of Parkinson̕s disease, phenlyketonurea and leukemia. In wastewater treatment, they are used for the removal of phenolic pollutants from wastewaters. In pharmaceutical industry, differentiation of morphine from codeine is possible by means of polyphenol oxidase immobilized electrodes. In this study, a thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus was evaluated in terms of poyphenol oxidase production. The effect of different nutrient sources, inducers and fermentation parameters on enzyme production were investigated and maximum PPO activity of 97 U/ml was observed in bioreactor experiments at 50°C, 400 rpm and pH 8.0 in a fermentation medium containing 1.4% yeast extract, 0.3% MgSO4, 1% KH2PO4, 0.003% CuSO4, 0.032% gallic acid. Type of polyphenol oxidase produced by Thermomyces lanuginosus was determined as laccase. For biochemical characterization studies, the enzyme was enriched by electrophoresis. Temperature and pH optima for the enzyme were determined as 60°C and 8.0, respectively. Enzyme retained 67% activity after 1 h incubation at 80°C and retained 87% of its activity after 1 hour of incubation at pH 9.0 at room temperature. The enzyme obeys Michealis-Menten kinetics with Km and Vmax values being 5 mg /ml catechol and 38 U/ml, respectively. Molecular weight of the enzyme was determined as 29 kDa and isoelectric point of enzyme was found to be approximately 6.0.