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GIS-based structural performance Assessment of Sakarya City after 1999 Kocaeli-Turkey earthquake from geotechnical and earthquake engineering point of view

Yılmaz, Zeynep
The August 17, 1999 Kocaeli-Turkey Earthquake (Mw=7.4) caused severe damage to the structures and lifelines in the Marmara region. Soil liquefaction was identified as one of the major causes of this damage. The aim of this study is to determine geotechnical and earthquake engineering factors that contribute to the structural damage observed in Sakarya city after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. For this purpose, the results of an extensive field investigation program compiled by General Directorate of Disaster Affairs including subsurface soil characterization and documenting structural performance data were used. The database was carefully screened for poor quality data and was transferred to geographic information system (GIS) framework. Maximum likelihood methodology for the probabilistic assessment of seismically induced structural performance was chosen as the statistical tool. After series of sensitivity analyses, important geotechnical and earthquake engineering parameters of the problem were selected as i) liquefaction severity index, ii) post liquefaction volumetric settlement, iii) peak ground acceleration and, iv) spectral acceleration defined at the period range of conventional buildings. In addition to these parameters, structural performance defined as a) no damage and light, b) moderate damage, c) heavy damage and collapse, as well as the number of storeys of each structure were used as to correlate structural damage with geotechnical earthquake engineering factors. As a conclusion series of vulnerability functions specific to Adapazari shaken by Kocaeli Earthquake were developed. Performance predictions of these vulnerability functions were shown to be consistent with as high as 65 percent of the observed structural performance.