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Polyaniline: synthesis characterization solution properties and composites

Yılmaz, Faris
Polyaniline was chemically synthesized at three different temperatures of 25, 0, and -25oC, by oxidative polymerization with ammonium peroxidisulfate at equimolar of aniline to oxidant ratio and 1M HCl. The resulted polyaniline was in a powder form which was characterized by several techniques such as: electrical conductivity, elemental analysis, thermal analysis, wide-angle X-Ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope. The solution properties of the reduced polymer were studied by viscometry, static and dynamic light scattering. It was found that as the polymerization temperature decreased, the molecular weight, crystallinity, and thermal stability of polyaniline increased, while the electrical conductivity was independent of the polymerization temperature. Moreover, the morphology of the polymer was changed from granular to tubular with reducing polymerization temperature. Viscometry and static light scattering showed that polyaniline has a flexible random coil conformation when dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone which proved to be a good solvent for this polymer. Dynamic light scattering indicated that the polymer solution is a polyelectrolyte with high hydrodynamic radius at low polymer concentrations. All mechanical features except Young's modulus of polyaniline-filled low density polyethylene composites became poorer as polyaniline content increased. Moreover, a sudden increase in the electrical conductivity with increasing polyaniline contents was also observed. The conductivity of the tubular composites of multi wall nanotubes (MWNTs)-filled polyaniline increased with increasing MWNTs loading, and became weakly temperature dependent. The morphological analysis indicated that the MWNTs were well dispersed and isolated, and the tubes became crowded proportionally to MWNTs weight percent used in the composites.