The question of the West in the ideology of revivalism : perspectives from Mawlana Abu’l- a‘la Mawdudi, Sayyid Qutb and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

Aras, Esra
This thesis surveys the response of the ideology of 20th century Islamic revival to the West and the Western-inspired regimes at home. Based on J.S. Mill’s “method of difference, it compares the ideological perspectives of the prominent figures of Islamic revival: Mawlana Abu’l-A‘la Mawdudi in Indio-Pakistan, Sayyid Qutb in Egypt and Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran. In this context, it analyzes the appraisal of Islam as a total way of life in order to refute the Western tradition and refuse its interference into the socio-politics of the Islamic world in the ideal order proposed by those ideologues. The question of the West is the dependent variable of the comparison and is searched through two independent variables: (1) ontology/epistemology of the ideal Islamic order which necessitates a socio-political transformation from “jahiliyya” to “hakimiyya” and (2) the methodology to attain the ideal order which is based on activism. In this perspective, it questions the revivalist proposal of “Occidentalism” as a reaction to the Western-originated system of governance. To this end, the thesis firstly explores the characteristics of the independent variables the epistemology/ontology and methodology- of Islamic revival from a historical point of view. Then, it continues with comparing how Mawdudi, Qutb and Khomeini respectively regard the West in the theory of ideal Islamic order which reads a process from “jahiliyya” to “hakimiyya” through activism.


The Factors for the rise of political Islam: Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt
Pehlivan, Arife; Tür Küçükkaya, Özlem; Department of Middle East Studies (2013)
This thesis analyzes the factors that caused the rise of political Islam by looking at the emergence and evolution of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. This thesis takes the view that rather than the nature of Islam, political Islam indeed, is a modern phenomenon that emerged as a reaction to the historical and contextual political and socio-economic factors that have been affecting the Muslim world. Islamists are opposing to the deficiencies of contemporary world order by using different tools and tactics from ...
Dilan , Ayverdi; Recep , Boztemur; Department of Middle East Studies (2021-10-12)
This thesis aims to analyze the failure of political Islam in not responding to the social demands of the Iranian people with the established system after the revolution. The Islamic regime claimed to create a democratic constitution with the Islamic rule (Sharia) and an equal economic system that prioritizes the oppressed people (mustazafin) and responds to society's real expectations, which the Pahlavi monarchy had not responded. However, eliminating revolutionary forces like the socialists, nationalists,...
Muslim Brotherhood’s relationship with Egyptian governments from 1952 to 2008: an accomodational and confrontational relationship
Açıkalın, Serpil; Dağı, İhsan Duran; Department of Middle East Studies (2009)
This thesis analyses the Muslim Brotherhood’s fluctuated relationship with three of the Egyptian governments for the post-Revolutionary period. It is argued that the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian Governments were firstly accommodated each other during the legitimacy processes of the governments. However, after the Muslim Brotherhood began to use the governments’ concessions to infiltrate the social and political field the Movement began to be seen as a threat by the governments and the relationship be...
Making of new Islamism in Turkey transformation of the Islamist discourse from opposition to compliance
Özçetin, Burak; Ayata, Ayşe; Department of Political Science and Public Administration (2011)
This thesis analyzes the transformation of Islamism from an anti-systemic and oppositional force to a compliant and submissive political ideology. The thesis locates the approach towards established political and economic relations at its centre. The thesis argues that the transformation, which led to formation of the Justice and Development Party, has begun in the late 1980s and early 1990s. To give the contours of this transformation, the thesis presents a detailed analysis of anti-systemic and systemic p...
Islam and the West: conflict or cooperation?
Polat, Necati (2003-10-01)
A broad-ranging assessment of relations between the Muslim and Western worlds in the contemporary era set in the context of the way these have evolved historically. Arguing that the relations have been marked by long periods of peaceful coexistence, but also by many instances of tension, hostility and mutual recrimination, Amin Saikal assesses the impact of the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict, the consequences of the Iranian revolution and of the wars in the Gulf and Afghanistan, and charts a course for fu...
Citation Formats
E. Aras, “The question of the West in the ideology of revivalism : perspectives from Mawlana Abu’l- a‘la Mawdudi, Sayyid Qutb and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini ,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2008.