The Factors for the rise of political Islam: Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt

Download
2013
Pehlivan, Arife
This thesis analyzes the factors that caused the rise of political Islam by looking at the emergence and evolution of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. This thesis takes the view that rather than the nature of Islam, political Islam indeed, is a modern phenomenon that emerged as a reaction to the historical and contextual political and socio-economic factors that have been affecting the Muslim world. Islamists are opposing to the deficiencies of contemporary world order by using different tools and tactics from secular ideological movements. Dissimilar to the secular movements which ground their opposition on the rationally constituted ideologies, Islamists use a religious discourse to protest the failures of the modern world system. This thesis aims to examine the reasons that led to the rise of political Islam within the framework of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. The research question of this thesis is which factors led to the resurgence of political Islam and which historical and socio-political circumstances brought Muslim Brotherhood to power. It is the major theme of this thesis that the appeal of the political Islam is the consequence of interrelated developments which are the hegemonic role of West manifests itself with the colonial rule in the Muslim world, the disenchantment of modernization, erosion of the authentic values and practices, identity problems and the failure of economic policies coming with political oppression. Within this context, it is argued in this thesis that the British colonial rule in Egypt, the demise of secular nationalism following the Arab defeat in the Six Days War, the failure of Nasser’s state led-developmet policy and Sadat’s infitah policy and the poverty, economic stagnancy unemployment, political oppression, widespread corruption, stifling censorship during the Mubarak’s period brought Muslim Botherhood to power.