Broadband phase shifter realization with surface micromachined lumped components

Tokgöz, Korkut Kaan
Phase Shifters are one of the most important building cells of the applications in microwave and millimeter-wave range, especially for communications and radar applications; to steer the main beam for electronic scanning. This thesis includes all of the stages starting from the theoretical design stage to the measurements of the phase shifters. In detail, all-pass network phase shifter configuration is used to achieve broadband and ultra wide-band differential phase characteristics. For these reasons, 1 to 2 GHz, 2 to 4 GHz, and 3 to 6 GHz 4-bit, 22.5° phase resolution phase shifter realization with surface micromachined lumped components are designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. Basic building blocks of the phase shifters, i.e., surface micromachined lumped components, square planar spiral inductors and Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors are designed with EM simulation and lumped equivalent model extractions. The validation of the designed square planar spiral inductors is done with fabrication and measurement steps, very low error, below 1%, between the designs and fabricated samples are observed. Using this knowledge on lumped elements finally phase shifters are designed with surface micromachined lumped components, fabricated using an in house technology provided by METU-MEMS facilities, RF MEMS group. Low phase rms error, good return and insertion loss considerations are aimed, and achieved. In addition to the main work of this thesis, a generalized theoretical calculation method for 2n-1 number of stages all-pass network phase shifters is presented for the first time in literature. A different, new, broadband, and combined phase shifter topology using two-stage all-pass filters is presented. Moreover, the implementation of this idea is proved to be practical to 3 to 6 GHz 5.625° and 11.25° combined phase shifter. A new approach for stage numbers other than power of 2 is indicated, which is different from what is already presented in the literature. An example practical implementation results are provided for the three-stage 4-bit 1 to 6 GHz phase shifter. Also, a small improvement in SRF of the high inductance valued inductors is achieved with the mitering of the corners of square planar spiral inductors. Comparison of the measured data between the normal inductors and mitered versions shows that the first SRF of the inductors are increased about 80 MHz, and second SRF of the inductors are increased about 200 MHz.