Studies on the mechanism of resistance against pyrethroids in helicoperva armigera : molecular and proteomic approach

Konuş, Metin
Helicoverpa armigera is an insect, causes important economical losses in crops. To reduce this loss, chemical insecticides such as pyrethroids have been commonly used against H. armigera in farming areas all over the world. However, excess and continuous usages of them cause resistance development in H. armigera. Insects develop resistance against applied insecticides by following three main mechanisms; by reducing the amount of insecticide entering into the insect body, developing insensitivity of the insecticide effective site and increasing detoxification metabolism of insecticides such as increased metabolism of them in midgut tissue of H. armigera. Therefore, changes in differentially expressed midgut proteins were analysed at protein level with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) together with examine biochemical activity changes of certain detoxification enzymes such as esterases (EST) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). Moreover, transcriptional level analysis of certain genes from EST and GST systems together with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450) system were done with quantitative real-time PCR method, too. According to the comparative proteome analysis, it was found that H. armigera field samples overcome pyrethroid stress mainly by increasing energy metabolism related proteins expressions such as ATP synthase, Vacuolar ATPase A and B and arginine kinase proteins. Furthermore, certain detoxification enzymes such as thioredoxin peroxidase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase were up-regulated in Mardin population, suggesting that they were actively participating in response to pyrethroid stress. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase could play a role in detoxification of toxic pyrethroid metabolites such as 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde. However, while glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were not found up-regulated in the comparative proteome analysis, biochemical assays (GST-CDNB, GST-DCNB and GST-PNBC) showed significant increases in enzyme activities in the Adana and in the Mardin field population, as compared to the susceptible strain. Furthermore, GST-DCNB and GST-PNBC activities showed significant increase in Çanakkale population. As overcoming energy crisis may lead to an increase in oxidative stress, detoxification enzymes (GSTs and thioredoxin peroxidase) might be involved in pathways for eliminating toxic reactive oxygen species such as H2O2. Similarly, although esterases (EST) were not found as differentially expressed, biochemical assays for ESTs showed significant increases in enzymatic activities in the Adana and the Mardin field populations. Thus, ESTs are also proposed to be involved in developing resistance as an initiator of pyrethroid metabolism in H. armigera from Turkey. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that while CYP9A14 gene expression was up-regulated in all analyzed field populations, CYP9A12 gene expression was up-regulated in both Çanakkale and Mardin populations. CYP4S1 gene expression was also up-regulated only in Mardin field population. However, while CYP6B7 gene expression together with CYP9A12 and CYP4S1 genes expressions were down-regulated in Adana population, CYP6B7 gene expression was not significantly changed in both Çanakkale and Mardin populations. In addition, GST, GSTX01 and ESTX018 gene expressions were not significantly changed in all field populations in comparison to susceptible population. Therefore, CYP9A14, CYP9A12 and CYP4S1 genes proposed to be involved in detoxification of toxic pyrethroid metabolites possibly through regulation of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase. In conclusion, it is suggested that one of the main mechanisms of resistance development is increased energy metabolism in the midgut tissue of H. armigera which may be a general prerequisite for compensating the costs of energy-consuming detoxification processes.