Cellulose-based electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

Atila, Deniz Hazal
With the use of a scaffold as support material, adequate number of cells, and bioactive molecules, tissue engineering applications intend to promote the regeneration of tissues or to replace failing or malfunctioning tissues/organs. In this study, electrospun 2D and 3D cellulose-based scaffolds were aimed to be produced with pullulan (PULL). Cellulose acetate (CA) and PULL powders in various ratios (80/20, 50/50, and 80/20) were dissolved in DMAc/DMSO solvent system and electrospun as either 2D or 3D forms. Scaffolds were modified by crosslinking or sacrificial fiber removal and characterized. When the electrospun scaffolds were crosslinked with STMP, a crosslinker for PULL, weight loss was so high and this crosslinking demolished fiber morphology. Therefore, for plant origin cellulose based scaffolds instead of crosslinking, PULL fibers were used as sacrificial fibers to increase porosity and produce 3D scaffolds. After sacrificial fibers of PULL were removed, cell viability tests were conducted via Alamar Blue Assay using CA/PULL with 50/50 ratio having 82.90±6.77% porosity, 14.19 μm mean fiber diameter and 146.9±9.24 MPa compressive strength by seeding human osteogenic sarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929) cell line. Cell culture studies showed that electrospun scaffolds were biocompatible. Bacterial cellulose (BC) pellicles synthesized by bacteria species Glucanoacetobacter xylinum, were modified in order to be electrospun with the addition of PULL or/and gelatin. Acetylation, powder size reduction by mixer milling and autoclave treatments, and sulfuric acid exposure of BC were performed. However, crystalline BC was not easily processable for electrospinning due to poor solubility in the solvent systems suitable for plant origin cellulose. FTIR-ATR showed that these modifications altered the physicochemical characteristics of BC however they could not be sufficient for complete dissolution.


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Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that is rapidly emerging as a promising new approach in the restoration and reconstruction of tissues. In this approach, three dimensional (3D) scaffolds are of great importance. Scaffolds function both as supports for cell growth and depot for sustained release of required active agents (e.g. enzymes, genes, antibiotics, growth factors). Scaffolds should possess certain properties in accordance with usage conditions. Wet-spinning is a simple technique that ha...
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Scaffolds produced for tissue engineering applications are promising alternatives to be used in healing and regeneration of injured tissues and organs. In this study, fibrous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were prepared by wet spinning technique and modified by addition of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and by immobilizing gelatin onto fibers. Meanwhile, gelatin microspheres carrying Ceftriaxone sodium (CS), a model antibiotic, were added onto the scaffolds and antimicrobial activity of CS was investi...
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During last decade, polyurethanes (PUs) which are able to degrade into harmless molecules upon implantation have received a significant level of attention as a biomaterial in tissue engineering applications. Many studies are focused especially on development of PUs based on amino acid derivatives; however, there are only few applications of amino acid based PUs in tissue engineering. In this study, a biocompatible and biodegradable thermoplastic poly(ester-urethane) (PEU) based on L-lysine diisocyanate (LDI...
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Ataol, Sibel; Tezcaner, Ayşen; Akdağ, Akın; Department of Biomedical Engineering (2014)
Current strategies of tissue engineering aim to design and develop biologically, physicochemically and mechanically proper scaffolds. Natural polymers are gaining interest in applications since they have already many roles in biochemical pathways and have proper mechanical properties. The objective of this thesis is to develop natural silk fibroin (SF) and citrus pectin (PEC) based three-dimensional porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Additionally, we aimed to synthesize nano calcium ...
Free standing layer-by-layer films of polyethyleneimine and poly(l-lysine) for potential use in corneal stroma engineering
Altay, Gizem; Hasırcı, Vasıf Nejat; Khademhosseini, Ali; Department of Biomedical Engineering (2011)
In this study we fabricated free standing multilayer films of polyelectrolyte complexes for potential use in tissue engineering of corneal stroma by using the layer-by-layer (LbL) approach. In the formation of these LbL films negatively charged, photocrosslinkable (methacrylated) hyaluronic acid (MA-HA) was used along with polycations polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(L-lysine) (PLL). Type I collagen (Col) was blended in with PLL for improving the water absorption and cell attachment properties of the films....
Citation Formats
D. H. Atila, “Cellulose-based electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2014.