Developing a Likert-type measure to assess transformational and transactional leadership styles in Turkey

Dönmez, Seval
Aim of the current study was to develop a valid Likert-type measure to assess transformational and transactional leadership styles in Turkey. At the development stage; the literature was reviewed in terms of definitions and behavioral examples of these leadership styles and mostly prized organizational values and leadership styles observed in Turkey. Interviews were conducted to obtain behavioral examples related to how transformational leaders behave in general, followed by a content analysis of responses. A total of 37 items were developed and the Transformational and Transactional Leadership Scale (TTLS-TR) was validated with a sample of 165 employees and 38 superiors. Construct validation indicated a two-factor structure of transformational and transactional leadership, converging associations with the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), especially for transformational leadership, and a close-to expected correlation between transformational leadership and extraversion. Concurrent criterion-related validation indicated that transformational leadership predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, and the satisfaction of work-related basic psychological needs of relatedness and autonomy, whereas transactional leadership did not. The basic contribution of the study is the introduction of the TTLS developed in Turkey, which includes culture-specific elements of valued leadership behaviors.


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Citation Formats
S. Dönmez, “Developing a Likert-type measure to assess transformational and transactional leadership styles in Turkey,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2014.