Age, gender, mileage and the DBQ: The validity of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire in different driver groups

Martinussen, Laila M.
Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
Moller, Mette
Özkan, Türker
Lajunen, Timo
The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving behaviors. Despite the popularity of the DBQ, the applicability of the DBQ in different driver groups has remained mostly unexamined. The present study measured aberrant driving behavior using the original DBQ (Reason, J.T., Manstead, A., Stradling, S.G., Baxter, J., Campbell, K., 1990. Errors and violations on the road - a real distinction. Ergonomics, 33 (10/11), 1315-1332) to test the factorial validity and reliability of the instrument across different subgroups of Danish drivers. The survey was conducted among 11,004 Danish driving license holders of whom 2250 male and 2190 female drivers completed the questionnaire containing background variables and the DBQ. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original three-factor solution, a four-factor solution and a two-factor solution had acceptable fit when using the whole sample. However, fit indices of these solutions varied across subgroups. The presents study illustrates that both the original DBQ and a Danish four-factor DBQ structure is relatively stable across subgroups, indicating factorial validity and reliability of the DBQ. However, as the Danish DBQ structure has an overall better fit, the present study highlights the importance of performing an explorative analysis when applying the DBQ in order to assess the problem areas within a driving population.


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The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is used to measure aberrant driver behavior by asking drivers how often they engage in various aberrant driver behaviors. Since the development of the original DBQ several modified versions have been developed. The difference between the various versions is that new items are added or existing items modified or excluded. However, despite the differences, all versions are relatively long and therefore time-consuming and tiring to answer, which might limit the usability...
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The aim of the present study was to develop a comprehensive scale measuring professional drivers' driver behaviors. For this reason, a semi-structured interview form was prepared and applied to different professional driver groups in order to collect behavioral examples displayed in traffic context (Study 1). These examples were grouped based on Reason's taxonomy of human error and Professional Driver, Driver Behavior Scale (PDBQ) was developed. PDBQ along with some other behavior scales such as ODBQ and DB...
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Citation Formats
L. M. Martinussen, L. Hakamies-Blomqvist, M. Moller, T. Özkan, and T. Lajunen, “Age, gender, mileage and the DBQ: The validity of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire in different driver groups,” ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, pp. 228–236, 2013, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: