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A review of bioceramic porous scaffolds for hard tissue applications: Effects of structural features

2020-07-01
Jodati, Hossein
Yilmaz, Bengi
Evis, Zafer
Tissue engineering has acquired remarkable attention as an alternative strategy to treat and restore bone defects during recent years. A scaffold is a fundamental component for tissue engineering, on which cells attach, proliferate and differentiate to form new desirable functional tissue. The composition, and structural features of scaffolds, including porosity and pore size, play a fundamental role in the success of tissue-engineered construct. This review summarizes the effect of porosity and pore size of bioceramic-based scaffolds on their mechanical properties and biological performances. The focus of this review is on scaffolds with porosities 40% and above. From the mechanical point of view, the degree of porosity is a more important factor than pore size and scaffolds with porosities greater than 40% were more likely to substitute trabecular bones. While for in vitro and in vivo performances, pore size appeared more influential feature and co-existence of macropores and micropores led to better bone formation.