Structural Validity of Turkish Versions of the Gender Role Conflict Scale and Male Role Norms Scale

Lease, Suzanne H.
Ciftci, Ayse
Demir, Ayhan Gürbüz
Boyraz, Gueler
Masculinity ideologies are expected to vary by culture, yet the scales frequently used to measure masculinity and the related construct of gender role conflict were developed and normed in the United States and have not been validated for use in Middle Eastern cultures. This set of two studies examined the construct equivalence of translated and adapted versions of the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) and the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS) with Turkish individuals. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test previously established structural models of both scales. CFA indicated that the translated versions of both scales had acceptable structural validity. Item means, item-total scale correlations, and Cronbach's alpha reliabilities were also examined to provide evidence of equivalence. Correlations between the GRCS and measures of work and personal relationships and multivariate analysis of gender differences on the MRNS further supported the construct validity of the translated versions. Overall, Turkish women endorsed a less traditional view of masculinity, and gender role conflict was related to poorer relations with classmates and intimate partners.


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Citation Formats
S. H. Lease, A. Ciftci, A. G. Demir, and G. Boyraz, “Structural Validity of Turkish Versions of the Gender Role Conflict Scale and Male Role Norms Scale,” PSYCHOLOGY OF MEN & MASCULINITY, pp. 273–287, 2009, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: