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In vitro performance of a nanobiocomposite scaffold containing boron-modified bioactive glass nanoparticles for dentin regeneration

Rad, Reza Moonesi
Pazarçeviren, Ahmet Engin
Akguen, Elif Ece
Evis, Zafer
Keskin, Dilek
Sahin, Sila
Tezcaner, Ayşen
Every year, many dental restoration methods are carried out in the world and most of them do not succeed. High cost of these restorations and rejection possibility of the implants are main drawbacks. For this reason, a regenerative approach for repairing the damaged dentin-pulp complex or generating a new tissue is needed. In this study, the potential of three-dimensional cellulose acetate/oxidized pullulan/gelatin-based dentin-like constructs containing 10 or 20% bioactive glass nanoparticles was studied to explore their potential for dentin regeneration. Three-dimensional nano biocomposite structures were prepared by freeze-drying/metal mold pressing methods and characterized by in vitro degradation analysis, water absorption capacity and porosity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, in vitro biomineralization analysis. During one-month incubation in phosphate buffered saline solution at 37 degrees C, scaffolds lost about 25-30% of their weight and water absorption capacity gradually decreased with time. Scanning electron microscopy examinations showed that mean diameter of the tubular structures was about 420 mu m and the distance between walls of the tubules was around 560 mu m. Calcium phosphate precipitates were formed on scaffolds surfaces treated with simulated body fluid, which was enhanced by boron-modified bioactive glass addition. For cell culture studies human dental pulp stem cells were isolated from patient teeth. An improvement in cellular viability was observed for different groups over the incubation period with the highest human dental pulp stem cells viability on B7-20 scaffolds. ICP-OES analysis revealed that concentration of boron ion released from the scaffolds was between 0.2 and 1.1 mM, which was below toxic levels. Alkaline phosphatase activity and intracellular calcium amounts significantly increased 14 days after incubation with highest values in B14-10 group. Von Kossa staining revealed higher levels of mineral deposition in these groups. In this work, results indicated that developed dentin-like constructs are promising for dentin regeneration owing to presence of boron-modified bioactive glass nanoparticles.