Traffic climate, driver behaviour, and accidents involvement in China

Chu, Wenhui
Wu, Chaozhong
Atombo, Charles
Zhang, Hui
Özkan, Türker
Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) and Positive Driver Behaviours Scale (PDBS) are new measurement tools. The study aims to translate the TCS and PDBS into Chinese and to assess their factor structures in a large sample of licensed motor vehicle drivers in China. A further aim is to investigate the effects of TCS factors on drivers' behaviours and traffic accidents involvement. Data were collected using an online survey. Participants were 887 fully licensed motor vehicle drivers, including 531 males and 356 females who completed a Chinese translated questionnaire including the TCS, PDBS, Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ), items related to drivers' driving records and demographic characteristics. The result of the exploratory factor analysis revealed clear three-factor solution ('Functionality', 'External affective demand' and 'Internal requirement') of TCS with high item loadings and acceptable internal consistency coefficients. The convergent validity of the Chinese TCS was supported by its relationship with driver behaviour factors (violations, errors, lapses and positive behaviours), the traffic accidents involvement and demographic characteristics. The results further show that the external affective demand consistently and positively relate to aberrant behaviours and negatively relate to positive behaviours with indirect positive significant effects on accidents involvement. Functionality is concurrently and negatively related to aberrant behaviours and positively related to positive behaviours with no effects on accidents involvement. The internal requirement is negatively related to aberrant behaviours but, positively related to positive behaviours with positive significant direct effects on accidents involvement.


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This paper validates traffic safety climate attitudes based on a representative sample of road users of all travel modes. We use the German version of the Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) which was applied in a large-scale road safety survey in 2010. A total of 1680 people were surveyed. The sample is representative for socio-demographic characteristics and travel mode choice in Germany. Factor analysis reveals a three-factor structure of traffic safety climate with the factor 'External affective demands' descri...
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A short scale of traffic climate across five countries
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The Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) measures the perceptions and attitudes of road users about the given traffic context with three dimensions: external affective demands, functionality, and internal requirements. The TCS was developed in Turkish and then translated into several languages. The main aim of the current study was to develop a shorter version of the TCS and to test the factor structures cross-culturally (i.e. Estonia, Greece, Kosovo, Russia, and Turkey). In addition, the five countries were compare...
Driver profiles based on values and traffic safety climate and their relationships with driver behaviors
Kaçan, Bilgesu; Fındık, Gizem; Üzümcüoğlu, Yeşim; Azık Özkan, Derya; Solmazer, Gaye; Ersan, Özlem; Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Öz, Bahar; Pashkevich, Anton; Pashkevich, Maria; Danelli-Mylona, Vassiliki; Georgogianni, Dimitra; Berisha Krasniqi, Ema; Krasniqi, Muhamed; Makris, Evangelos; Shubenkova, Ksenia; Xheladini, Gentianë (Elsevier BV, 2019-7)
Drivers have an important place in the traffic system when the human factor is taken into consideration. Drivers from different cultures are exposed to different values, norms, and traffic systems, and these differences may form various driver behaviors. Thus, traffic climate and individual values can impact driver behaviors. In this study, the relationships between Schwartz's individual values and traffic climate dimensions were examined. Clusters were then created from the traffic climate dimensions and i...
Citation Formats
W. Chu, C. Wu, C. Atombo, H. Zhang, and T. Özkan, “Traffic climate, driver behaviour, and accidents involvement in China,” ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION, pp. 119–126, 2019, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: