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Needle steering for percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Gümüşkanat, Özlem
The role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PCNL) in the elimination of kidney stone has a wide usage among urologists. However, it still posesses criticalities as a technique such as precise needle puncture of the kidney which remains to be a challenging and essential step for successful PCNL. The movements of kidney and kidney stones due to respiration are the main restriction of this minimally invasive surgical procedure. For this reason, the needle steering in PCNL is done under general anesthesia by stopping respiration of patient. This thesis presents a critical review to address the methodologies and techniques existant for conducting kidney targeted area detection and needle steering during PCNL. Moreover, the thesis proposes a method for robotic needle steering that is implemented in simulations and on hardware with ballistic gel. The proposed method uses needle steering without the need of stopping or slowing down respiration. The thesis also provides thorough analysis of parameter selection in the proposed methodology and ends with valuable recommendations for actual implementation.