Development and characterization of (carbonated) hydroxyapatite, akermanite involving polycaprolactone scaffolds

Altunordu, Gerçem
Bone tissue loss or damage can occur due to accidents, injuries and diseases (osteomyelitis, osteosarcaoma, osteoporosis, etc.). Bone tissue engineering (BTE) aims to develop biomaterials that enhance the regeneration of bone tissue. Therefore, scaffolds for BTE should be biocompatible and bioactive; enabling strong communication with bone tissue. Bioceramics are a group of biomaterials that resemble to native bone mineral and improve bioactivity of BTE scaffolds. Considering these hydroxyapatite (HA), carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) and akermanite (AKR) bioceramics were synthesized and their optimum combination was determined to be used as BTE scaffolds. Bioactivities of all bioceramics were good. However, it was seen that AKR makes the ambient pH of the incubation medium basic. Therefore, 90% HA-10% AKR and 90% CHA-10% AKR bioceramic groups were prepared and compared with only HA or CHA containing groups. Bioceramic-polymer composite scaffolds were prepared by wet electrospinning of poly ԑ-caprolactone (PCL) solution loaded with these bioceramics (10% w/w) and then characterized for degradation, swelling and microstructural properties. Scaffolds containing CHA and AKR were shown to highly support apatite formation. Additionaly, cell proliferation and osteogenic activity were studied with bone cells (Saos-2). Among all, PCL scaffolds containing 90%HA-10%AKR and 90%CHA-10%AKR minerals supported better cell proliferation. It was observed that all groups induced cell differentiation with apatite layer formation. Therefore, all scaffolds groups are considered to be promising for use in bone tissue engineering applications.