Preferences and expectations of innovator-ritualist types in relation to sex of university students in a Turkish sample

The aim of ihis study was whether there is a prevailing representation of Innovators versus Ritualists which differs in both expected frequency and preference of the types for the two sexes. 213 Turkish undergraduate students were given Ritualist and Innovator vignettes in a random order and asked to state the expected frequency of the vignettes if each described a male or female. In addition to this, they stated their preferences for each sex in vignettes. Analysis showed that women are expected more frequently to be Ritualist than men, and men are expected to be more frequently Innovators than women. Moreover, regardless of sex, people prefer Innovators to Ritualists, while they state that they expect to encounter Ritualists more frequently than Innovators in Turkish society. Research implications and suggestions for study are discussed.


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Citation Formats
B. Öner Özkan, “Preferences and expectations of innovator-ritualist types in relation to sex of university students in a Turkish sample,” PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS, pp. 23–33, 2000, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: