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1912 İshakpaşa yangını ve Ayasofya çevresi̇ni̇n yeni̇den düzenlenmesi̇

Gürses Söğüt, Sibel
Fires resulting from different reasons since the Byzantine period in the history of Istanbul city have emerged as a problem to be struggled. For this reason, reconstruction movements which have gained importance together with the managerial innovations that are formed within the scope of modernization in the recent period, contain mostly fire places. It has continued to construct, despite the decree of the construction of wooden houses that imposed a ban in the city, in the 17th century, but in the first quarter of the 19th century, the discourse change regarding the city structure began. After this period, not only the structure of buildings, but also the streets, squares and docks were debated for the construction works, and the city structure in a wide frame were taken into consideration. After the proclamation of the Tanzimat decree, it was possible to implement the structural changes envisaged in the urban fabric together prepared with the Ebniye Regulation of 1848 and the Ebniye Law of 1882. The attempts to implement the Tanzimat regime were first gained by maps and plans prepared by foreign urbanist Luigi Storari. Further reconstruction practices were carried out with the new techniques of mapping with the 1908 revolution and different planning approach from the previous period. In 1910, a contract was signed with Andre Auric, the chief architect of the Municipality of Lyon. At the time when Auric was appointed, he had prepared the plans for the fire places of Aksaray, Circir, Ishakpasa and Beyazit. However, Auric also assumed responsibility for infrastructure services such as road planning, docks, water canals, bridges, and water works, and gas, electricity and communication systems. However, those who guided the reconstruction movements of both periods were not only the urbanists who were experts on the subject, but also the administrators of a political understanding that extended to the Republic Period. In this article, while addressing the arrangements of the Great Hagia Sophia and Sultanahmet Square over the Ishakpasa fire, it is intended to show the effect of Ishakpasa Fire and the contribution of the administrators to the planning approach of the period. In the study, signed maps by the authors of that era and Ottoman archival documents were used by the authors of the period. In these maps, the texture of the space before burning was also shown with the location of the fire place. In addition, Ottoman archival documents present the approach of the managers of the period to the subject, their attempts for the fire places and its surroundings and their opposing views. This situation gave the opportunity to make a comparative interpretation between different time sections in the study. For this reason, in the introduction part of the manuscript were divided into certain time periods, from the mid-19th century to the beginning of the 20th century with the planning approaches and the changes applied in the fire places. The beginning of these intervals has identified by a revolution or a revolutionary event. In the introduction section, 1912 Ishakpasa fires, between 1908 and 1920, which ruin 1/3 of the fortifications of Istanbul city are mentioned and the planning approach that sheds light on the planning approach and the reasons for the delay in reconstruction applications as the general framework of the period which would be useful to explain. In the first part of the article, Ishakpasa fire was conveyed with the news of Tanin Newspaper. In the second chapter, the studies on the fire place were evaluated in three sub-headings. The first plan of the fire place was prepared by the chief engineer of the period, Andre Auric. This section of the manuscript includes analysis of planning. 1912 Ishakpasa fire has not only changed the physical structure of the city, but has also been the tool of revealing and preserving the antiquities of the previous periods. In this period, with the addition of new items added to the law, the real estates belonging to the previous periods are considered to be the historical values that need to be protected. For this reason, it could be seen by the foundations of the Great Palace buildings revealed by the 1912 Ishakpasa fire, lead the design. This section is located in the second chapter of the article with the sub-title of archaeological excavations. In addition, in the article, the municipality mayor Cemil (Topuzlu) Pasha, which gained importance in the name of the municipality services, the place of fire and in the vicinity envisaged, applied / unapplied projects are also included in the second part. In summary, in this article, in the years of war and occupation in the beginning of the twentieth century, with the effect of the 1908 revolution, it was tried to describe the reconstruction effort within the Istanbul city walls.