Geç Osmanlı İnşaat Ortamında “Binâ Emînliği”

Download
2008-1-1
Şenyurt, Oya
“Construction custodian” existed starting from the early stages of the Ottoman Empire to its final periods, a position which occupied a special importance in the organization of construction activity. It is remarkable that he field of activity of construction custodian, which initially started as an office duty, extended to the fields of “architecture” and “contractor” services. The job description of the construction custodian, which sometimes overlapps with the job of the imperial chief architect, necessitates a redefinition and overview of job descriptions in the Ottoman construction activity of the late 18th century. However, it is difficult to state there were such efforts in the late Otoman period. The contents of jobs, which evolved within traditional forms using titles for positions in the field of construction, can be revealed today with a thorough examination of documented activities. It is unknown which of the duties of supervising the construction, providing financial solutions or ensuring the application of the technical requirements in the construction was among the responsibilities of the construction custodians in the Early Ottoman period. At the end of the 18th century, all of these duties, either a mix of them or only one, could be undertaken by the construction custodian in the buildings he worked at. Complex job descriptions which were re-organized for each building necessitate a new interpretation of the construction organization. While the criteria required for designation of the construction custodians varied for each building, the tendency in the career lines were also different. It is seen that both a janitor and a former architect could be appointed as the construction custodian of a building. When the construction custodian required to be knowledgeable about building construction, familiar with the “science of architecture” along with financial management and expenditure, a job conflict arose with the chief architect, a conflict of interests. In the Ottoman Empire of late 18th century, it was important for a building to be constructed for a single function with a fixed cost as a principle, where construction management rested on prominent personal activities. On the other hand, the challenge between master builders and imperial architects was another important problem of focus; where the rivalry among the construction custodian, the chief architect, and the master builder became inevitable under these circumstances. Without doubt, construction custodians were mainly building inspectors; however, they were also inspected, and tried for corruption or for actions inappropriate for their duty. For instance, a fortress construction built by the construction custodian in a way other than what was included in the project brief, was a reason for him to be dismissed. On the other hand, the construction custodians who became heavily indebted to bankers or construction gentry were also relieved of their duties. The construction records written by construction custodians both facilitate opportunuties to perceive the knowledge of these individuals about “science of architecture”, and to provide information about jobs undertaken by them, illustrating construction material of the era, specific problems of organization, and even conception of officials regarding contemporary political, cultural affairs. The conflicts experienced as of end of the 18th century due to the working style of the master builders and the defunct job description of the chiefarchitect indicate that the organization was set to adapt a new working style. On the other hand, it can be considered that the new bureaucratic positions which emerged after Tanzimat had a significant role in the abolishment of the “construction custodian” as a position. Supervising the building, inspecting the building or providing finance for it were now also included in the job descriptions of various ministries. Consequently, as the construction organization moved away from its traditional structure, the “construction custodian” position became a poorly respected duty and began to be forgotten starting the mid 19th century.

Suggestions

Bi̇r Tasarımın İzi̇nde: Yeni̇ Bulgular Işığında Raimondo d’Aronco’nun İlk İstanbul Projesi̇ Dersaadet Zi̇raat ve Sanayi̇ Sergi̇-i̇ Umumi̇si̇
Adıgüzel, Hatice (Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, 2019-9-25)
Osmanlı sergicilik tarihi içinde ikinci olma umuduyla yolan çıkan, ancak 1894 yılında gerçekleşen büyük İstanbul depremi nedeniyle iptal edilen Dersaadet Ziraat ve Sanayi Sergi-i Umumisi konusuna yoğunlaşan, mimarlık ve sanat tarihi bağlamında sınırlı sayıda araştırma vardır. 1893 yılında hazırlıkları yapılan sergi, Osmanlı mimarisine Raimondo D’Aronco gibi bir mimarı kazandırmasının ötesinde, Batı’nın uluslararası sergilerini model alan yaklaşımıyla, II. Abdülhamid döneminin ekonomik ve sosyal hayatını can...
Cumhuriyet Dönemi Mimarlığı: Tanımlar, Sınırlar, Olanaklar
Altan, Tomris Elvan (2009-01-01)
History of the architectural production in the XXth century Turkey began to be written in the 1960s, when new social dynamics affected the country following the early years of the Republic. These pioneering works interpreted the Republican architectural production within the frame of the nation-state formation, and with reference to its modernization process. This article examines the definitions offered by the first generational works of historiography on the Republican architecture, and discusses the limi...
Osmanlı’dan Ulus-Devlete Doğu Akdeni̇z Li̇man Kentleri̇nde Mekâna Müdahale Ve Kent Ki̇mli̇ği̇ndeki̇ Deği̇şi̇m-Mersi̇n ve Volos Örneği̇
Selvi̇ Ünlü, Tülin; Göksu, Emel (Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, 2018)
Akdeniz’in doğusundaki pek çok liman kenti, 19. yüzyılda değişen üretim ve ticaret ilişkileri ile Osmanlı’da süren modernleşme girişimleri sonucunda hızlı bir değişimin mekânı olmuştur. Değişen üretim biçimleri ve ilişkilerine bağlı olarak söz konusu kentlerde yeni kentsel kullanımlar ortaya çıkmış ve kentsel mekân, yerelin gereksinimleri doğrultusunda ve yerel inisiyatiflerle ilişkili biçimde yeniden şekillenmiştir. Bu süreçte, yeni bir ulus ve bu ulusun mekânını yaratma ideali, kimlik ve karakterini, çeşi...
Osmanlı Yüzer Köprüleri
Tanyeli, Gülsün; Tanyeli, Uğur (Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, 1990)
From the second half of the 15th century, Ottomans built pontoon bridges on the two extremes of the Empire, Mesopotamia and the Balkans, both for military and civil purposes. As a technological and organizational problem, these bridges constitute illuminative examples of a building type which was actually neglected not only by the students of this architectural tradition but also by the historians in general. The first reliable information on Ottoman pontoon bridges belongs to the age of Mehmed I (1452-1481...
Erken cumhuriyet dönemi ekonomi politikaları ve Türkiye' nin imar ve iskanı
Yıldırım, Onur(2003)
1922-1935 dönemi Türkiye'de ulusal ekonominin çerçevesinin yeniden belirlendiği bir dönemdir. Balkan Savaşları'ndan bu yana süregelen on yıllık savaş, ülkenin hem fiziki hem de beşeri coğrafyasında önemli değişiklikler yaratmış, ulusal ekonominin yeniden yapılanmasına katkıda bulunacak altyapıyı büyük oranda tahrip etmiştir. Türk-Yunan Savaşı sonrasında Lozan'da imzalanan Mübadele Protokolü ülkenin beşeri sermayesinin nitelikli kısmını büyük oranda kaybetmesine yol açmış, bu antlaşma uyarınca gelen binlerce...
Citation Formats
O. Şenyurt, “Geç Osmanlı İnşaat Ortamında “Binâ Emînliği”,” ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 151–169, 2008, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/2008/cilt25/sayi_2/151-169.pdf.