Modern ve Skolastik: Ruskin’in İncelenmemiş Bir Önsözü

Şengel, Deniz
In the brief Preface to the second edition of The Seven Lamps of Architecture published in 1855, John Ruskin identified four kinds of admiration viewers might feel regarding an architectural work: Sentimental Admiration, Proud Admiration, Workmanly Admiration, Artistical or Rational Admiration. Unexplored by Ruskin critics, the Preface poses significant interpretive problems: neither the Preface nor the elaboration of the fourfold typology contained in it bears reference to the content of The Seven Lamps which had first appeared in 1849. The key lies in the Preface’s explicit and implicit references to The Stones of Venice which Ruskin had published in 1853 and to the latter work’s all-important middle chapter entitled “The Nature of Gothic.” Read in conjunction with “The Nature of Gothic,” the 1855 Preface emerges as a belated gloss to The Stones, witnessed above all in the coalescence of the complementary notions of production and reading of the Gothic in both articles. “The Nature of Gothic” further offers the clue to the source of the fourfold typology and to Ruskin’s employment of the term admiration by identifying the reading of architectural works with textual reading, viz. the reading of Gothic cathedrals with the reading of epic poetry. The representation of Gothic cathedrals and the reference to Dante offer certain proof that Ruskin found the prototype of the fourfold typology and admiration in the Scholastic elaboration on the four levels of Biblical exegesis and on admiratio as, again, a mode of reading the Bible and viewing religious painting. In fact, Ruskin’s treatment of the fourfold typology and admiration follows as it were in verbatim fashion the description of Dante’s adaptation of the Biblical modes to the reading of his Divine Comedy in the “Epistle to Can Grande” as well as Dante’s sources in Aristotle, Aquinas, and Bonaventure. Ruskin’s radical reduction, found much puzzling by critics today, of the value of architecture to the value of the painting and sculpture contained in an edifice underscores the medieval conception of admiratio that had particularly flourished in the era of Gothic architecture. Not only will these findings compel us further to revise our notion of Ruskin’s stance toward the Evangelical Protestantism of his day as well as add to the demonstration of the author’s commitment to Gothic architecture, but they equally call for re-investigating Ruskin as a major force in the assimilation of architecture into the then-burgeoning discipline of art history.


Myth, landscape and boundaries : the impact of the notion of sacredness of nature on Greek urbanism and architecture
Pınar, Ekin; Güven, Suna Naziyet; Department of History of Architecture (2006)
This thesis focuses on the impact of the notion of holiness of nature in ancient Greek thought and its reflection on urbanism and architecture with respect to the transformations that took place during the archaic period. The archaic period represented most fundamentally a shift from an era where everything was on the move to an era of territorialism which culminated in the establishment of the polis and the Greek temple. This shift was prominent in the sense that it pointed not only to a basic modification...
Modernli̇k Söylemi̇: Endi̇şeli̇ Bakışlarda Modern Bi̇rey
Talu, Nilüfer (Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, 2010)
Modernity and modern life met with critique starting from the last quarter of the nineteenth century and continuing to the present through countless texts including classical theoretical writings, images, cultural objects, architectural practices, works of art, literary works, scientific and unscientific articles, reviews, movies, letters, lectures, etc. Regardless of whether they are discursive or not, these texts construct a point of view and a particular meaning concerning the mental health of the modern...
Exhibitions as the medium of architectural reproduction "modern architecture: international exhibition"
Tabibi, Baharak; Gür, Berin Fatma; Department of Architecture (2005)
This thesis studies the influential role of architectural exhibitions in shaping and directing architectural discourses. The study accepts architectural exhibitions and associated publications as the أcritical actؤ of architecture, in which (the work of) architecture is interpreted, reproduced and publicized. The main focus of this thesis is أModern Architecture: International Exhibition,ؤ held in 1932 at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). This particular exhibition is a significant historical event, which of...
Literary encoding of modernist alienation in the language and spaces of James Joyce’s Ulysses and Sadeq Hedayat’s the Blind Owl
Najafıbabanazar, Maryam; Sönmez, Margaret Jeanne M.; Department of English Literature (2018)
This thesis examines James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922) and Sadeq Hedayat’s The Blind Owl (1937) from the point of view of their responses to modernist alienation, that is, how these two writers construct texts that, at several levels and particularly on the levels of language, place and space, encode and express alienation. Alienation itself is a theme that has been regularly associated with modernist art, and with its history of plentiful associations and meanings alienation is here taken to refer to the indiff...
Sigfried Giedion's "space, time and architecture": an analysis of modern architectural historiography
Ceylanlı, Zeynep; Turan Özkaya, Belgin; Department of History of Architecture (2008)
This thesis investigates the key aspects of modern architecture in the first half of the twentieth century by an extensive reading of Sigfried Giedion’s book on modern architecture: Space, Time and Architecture The Growth of A New Tradition. Giedion’s life, his education, his other writings and his relationships with the pioneers of the era are considered as significant influences on the writing of the book. After giving an informative summary of the book, the key themes of the book are analyzed. While ana...
Citation Formats
D. Şengel, “Modern ve Skolastik: Ruskin’in İncelenmemiş Bir Önsözü,” ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 19–39, 2006, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: