After Kant's strict separation of the fields of pure reason and practical reason and his demonstration that reason cannot know anything apart from phenomena including the existence of God there was a continuous desire to reestablish the unity of both. The most successful attempt in that direction so far was Hegel's phenomenology of the Spirit where he claimed he succeeded to establish the unity of the two as the Absolute. Yet, even this was problematic for it was the faith itself which supplied the basis of unity while the character of reason (pure insight) was particularity of the self-consciousness. In the late modernity where everything has imploded postmodern theory have successfully destroyed the metanarratives that hold the modernist ideals together. Under these conditions in which the assertion of any kind of subjectivity is impossible there is now a growing interest again in the theories trying to establish the basis of a post-secular society where finally faith and knowledge are hoped to be reconciled and supply a new meaning instead of the lost ones. Particularly the theories developed by Jacques Derrida and Jurgen Habermas try to legitimize the return of the spirit or the 'religious' under the aegis of a still secular state. However, such a desire remains problematical as in Hegel's case for with its totalizing tendency the return of the spirit would tend to eradicate all difference as the basis of conflict and render the effective political action impossible.


Tendencies of change in the intellectual life of Iran after 1979 within the framework of Abdolkarim Soroush‟s ideas
Işık, Ece Adviye; Okyayuz, Mehmet; Department of Middle East Studies (2017)
The aim of this thesis is to shed light to the tendencies of change in the intellectual life of Iran with the framework of the development of a religious intellectual’s ideas, who is Abdolkarim Soroush. In this context, the focal point of this thesis will be to show that Iran has a potential to be changed and to be freed from her Islamic nature in time. In other words, this thesis aims to show that Iran has the tendency to change its Islamic character. For this purpose, this thesis also provides a compariso...
Nietzschean nihilism and the ways to overcome it in Tom Murphy's plays "bailegangaire" and "the sanctuary lamp"
Yılmaz, Victoria Bilge; Birlik, Nurten; Department of English Literature (2008)
Nietzschean epistemology involved many subversive elements and, thus, posed a challenge to the Christian epistemology and to other traditional frames of references which appeared after the Enlightenment. With his philosophy Nietzsche problematised many of the traditional givens like the master signifier (God), the other organising principles, and the traditional binary oppositions on which the Western metaphysics was based. He shattered the previous parameters of existence irraparably when he disconnected t...
Tracing repetition in the architectural plans of Enric Miralles
Kara, Deniz Dilan; Savaş Sargın, Ayşen; Department of Architecture (2017)
The concept of repetition is mainly developed by the theoretical realms of philosophy, literature and psychoanalysis. This thesis aims to reclaim repetition from theoretical realms of these mediums and to originate a link between repetition and architectural praxis as a drive of cognitive process and methodological execution. In this point, Enric Miralles’ architecture provides a substantial ground to seek repetitional operations. The concept of repetition enters Miralles’ architectural operations as a meth...
Problem of evil and divine providence in Maimonides' philosophy
Budanur, İpek; Ceylan, Yasin; Department of Philosophy (2011)
The evident existence of evil does not appear to be compatible with the traditional theistic view of Divine Justice. On the one hand, in the course of our daily lives we observe that the innocent suffer undeservedly and the wicked prosper abundantly; and on the other we have the religious principle assuring us that God is just. This contradiction which is known as the problem of evil constitutes one of the greatest challenges to theistic religions. Moses Maimonides, the foremost Jewish philosopher of the Mi...
On the ontology of linguistic frameworks toward a comprehensive version of empiricism
Davoody Benı, Majıd (2015-01-01)
Can the abstract entities be designated ? While the empiricists usually took the positive answer to this question as the first step toward Platonism, in his "Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology" [Carnap 1950], Carnap tried to make a reconciliation between the language referring to abstract entities on the one hand, and empiricism on the other. In this paper, firstly, I show that the ingenuity of Carnap's approach notwithstanding, it is prone to criticism from different aspects. But I also show how, even wit...
Citation Formats
E. Yıldırım, “RETURN OF THE SPIRIT AND THE DEMISE OF POLITICS,” JOURNAL FOR THE STUDY OF RELIGIONS AND IDEOLOGIES, pp. 107–131, 2010, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: