Biomechanical Evaluation of an Injectable Alginate / Dicalcium Phosphate Cement Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering

Alshemary, Ammar Z.
Bilgin, Saliha
Işık, Gülhan
Motameni, Ali
Tezcaner, Ayşen
Evis, Zafer
Biocompatible dicalcium phosphate (DCP) cements are widely used as bone repair materials. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of different amounts of sodium alginate (SA) on the microstructural, mechanical, and biological properties of DCP cements. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was prepared using a microwave-assisted wet precipitation system. Lattice parameters of the obtained particles determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD), were in good match with a standard phase of β-TCP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination revealed that the particles were in globular shape. Furthermore, all functional groups of β-TCP were also detected using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra. DCP cement (pure phase) was synthesized using monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/β-TCP powder mixture blended with 1.0 mL of water. SA/DCP cement composites were synthesized by dissolving different amounts of SA into water (1.0 mL) to obtain different final concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3%). The prepared cements were characterized with XRD, SEM, FTIR and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD results showed that pure DCP and SA/DCP cements were in a good match with Monetite phase. SEM results confirmed that addition of SA inhibited the growth of DCP particles. Setting time and injectability behaviour were significantly improved upon increasing the SA amount into DCP cements. In vitro biodegradation was evaluated using Simulated body fluid (SBF) over 21 days at 37 °C. The highest cumulative weight loss (%) in SBF was observed for 2.0% SA/DCP (about 26.52%) after 21 days of incubation. Amount of Ca2+ ions released in SBF increased with the addition of SA. DCP and SA/DCP cements showed the highest mechanical strength after 3 days of incubation in SBF and declined with prolonged immersion periods. In vitro cell culture experiments were conducted using Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Viability and morphology of cells incubated in extract media of DCP and SA/DCP discs after 24 h incubation was studied with MTT assay and fluorescence microscopy imaging, respectively. All cements were cytocompatible and viability of cells incubated in extracts of cements was higher than observed in the control group. Based on the outcomes, SA/DCP bone cements have a promising future to be utilized as bone filler.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials


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Citation Formats
A. Z. Alshemary, S. Bilgin, G. Işık, A. Motameni, A. Tezcaner, and Z. Evis, “Biomechanical Evaluation of an Injectable Alginate / Dicalcium Phosphate Cement Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering,” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, pp. 0–0, 2021, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: