Duration, Temporality, and Freedom: Self- Creation in Bergson and Sartre

2022-9-8
Yılmaz, Reyhan
This study aims to explore how freedom should be understood in terms of spontaneity from the perspectives of philosophy of life and phenomenology. In this context, it concentrates on Bergson’s and Sartre’s notions of freedom in relation to their qualitative understanding of time which stands for a central motif in their philosophy. Beyond the theories of determinism and free will that discuss freedom under the conception of time as successive series of ‘nows’, freedom implies the self-creative activity of life as in Bergson, and the constitution of oneself in the world on the basis of a fundamental choice as in Sartre. On the one hand, Sartre asserts the original temporality assuming the ontological structure of being-for-itself, on the other hand, Bergson highlights the essential difference between duration and spatial time. In order to explicate these key remarks, this thesis scrutinizes the notions of consciousness and self in both philosophies. Furthermore, it discusses Sartre’s critique of Bergson on duration to disclose how Sartre transforms Bergson’s idea of freedom from the existentialist point of view.

Suggestions

Time, the Self and Freedoom in Bergson
Cifteci, Volkan (2017-12-01)
Bergson argues that we live for the society which is external to us more than we live for ourselves which is our inner existence. That is, our inner existence is, for the most part, under the influence of our outer, social life. This kind of life necessarily leads to conditions in which the self is far removed from freedom, or conditions in which the self rarely acts freely. Nevertheless, Bergson tells us that freedom is in principle possible for human selves. In order to gain access to freedom, what we nee...
Kairapolitics: Spinozian Politics of Time
Atmaca, Mustafa Caglar (2020-01-01)
In this study, Spinoza's philosophy is discussed on an ethical-political ground within the context of the temporality of the passions of fear and hope. In this respect, it has been claimed that fear and hope are, in the Spinozian sense, sorrowful attitudes and for this reason, they are enslaving passions, although hope is a joyful attitude. It has been tried to show that this condition is chronopathological that has its source essentially in chronological time. Then, within the framework of passions and tem...
Freedom and creativity in Bergson's Philosophy
Özyurt, Esen; Parkan, Barış; Department of Philosophy (2013)
The purpose of this study is to make sense of the notion of freedom in Bergson‘s philosophy. Bergson‘s original approach to the problem of free will is the application of the notion of duration to solve this problem. For Bergson, the problem of free will arises from a misconceived framework which is based on reducing time to space. Throughout the thesis, we tried to show how the notion of duration allows Bergson to reformulate and solve the problem of free will. For that purpose the method of intuition as t...
The role of human nature in Hume's ethics
Arslanoğlu Çelik, Şengül; İnam, Ahmet; Department of Philosophy (2008)
This dissertation aims to determine the role of human nature in Hume's philosophy. It will examine how moral motivation arises when one takes human nature as the basis of moral philosophyWhat is maintained here is that Hume approaches his rival rationalist philosophers whom he criticised for drawing on metaphysics and rational methods in building the foundation of their ethics. Hume’s “science of man” attempts to isolate the basis of ethics from metaphysical and rational elements. However, this paper demons...
Bergson's conception of time: its effects on a possible philosophy of life
Kurtoğlu Taşdalen, Demet; Grünberg, David; Department of Philosophy (2003)
The aim of this study is to show how a possible philosophy of life can arise from Bergson̕s conception of time. In realizing this aim, I appeal to Hadot̕s description of the paradox of the human condition. I claim that in order to understand how a Bergsonian philosophy of life through Bergson̕s conception of time would arise we need to understand the paradox of the human condition. The reason for this is that there are a lot of dualities in Bergson̕s philosophy all of which, I claim, are based on this funda...
Citation Formats
R. Yılmaz, “Duration, Temporality, and Freedom: Self- Creation in Bergson and Sartre,” M.A. - Master of Arts, Middle East Technical University, 2022.