Characterisation of DNA from archaelogical wheat (Triticum L.) seeds from Anatolia

Somel, Mehmet
Ancient DNA analysis of archaeological wheat remains may serve to clarify unknown or controversial points in the history of wheat. In the first part of this study, extraction and amplification of DNA from Anatolian charred ancient wheat seeds obtained from different locations and ages was attempted. None of the our extraction samples yielded any PCR amplification. The possible reasons for this result were investigated by constructing an artificial charring experiment. The results suggest that the chances of obtaining DNA from the charred archaeological samples used in this study by the methods used are very low. Moreover, strong PCR inhibition by these charred seed extracts was observed. The second part of the study aimed to develop new DNA based markers for ancient wheat DNA analysis. Markers linked to the brittle rachis character exhibiting domestication status were sought, but no result was obtained. Primers targeting plasmon sequences were developed and tested. A primer pair amplifying a 400 bp portion of the chloroplast TrnLTrnF intergenic region was focused upon. A short piece of this region was amplified using ancient wheat DNA extracted in another study. This short piece appeared non-polymorphicupon sequencing. The sequence spanning a wider portion of this region contained a number of length polymorphisms. Phylogenetic reconstruction using maximum parsimony showed that these polymorphisms were able to distinguish wheat taxa at the maternal ancestor level.


Assessment of genetic variation of bread wheat varieties using microsatellite markers
Akkaya, Mahinur; Buyukunal-Bal, EB (2004-01-01)
The DNA fingerprinting profiles of 11 bread wheat cultivars, grown in Turkey, was obtained by using 19 highly polymorphic wheat microsatellites. Up to six randomly selected individuals from each of these cultivars were subjected to analysis. Estimated polymorphism information content (PIC) values among 65 individual genotypes for 19 loci were between 0.36 and 0.87 with an average value of 0.68. The numbers of observed alleles were between 2 and 9, with an average value of 5.42. These relationships were asse...
Analysis of ancient DNA from in vitro grown tissues of 1600-year-old seeds revealed the species as Anagyris foetida
Ozgen, Murat; Ozdilek, Asli; BİRSİN, MELEHAT AVCI; Önde, Sertaç; ŞAHİN, DERYA; AÇIKGÖZ, Esvet; Kaya, Zeki (2012-12-01)
Seven ancient seeds, about 1600 years old, were found during an archaeological excavation in Asar Island which is located in south-western Turkey. These seeds were subjected to germination, in vitro callus induction and molecular characterization experiments to test the viability and plant origin of the seeds. Six of the seven seeds had viable seed components (such as cotyledons) and produced callus tissue in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2mgl(-1) 6-benzylamino purine (BAP), 0.2 mgl(-1) 1-nap...
The ancient DNA and archaeobotanical analysis suggest cultivation of Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta at Yumuktepe and Yenikapi Pottery Neolithic sites in Turkey
Degirmenci, Funda O.; ULAŞ, BURHAN; Kansu, Cigdem; Ulug, Asiye; Caneva, Isabella; Asal, Rahmi; Kaya, Zeki (2022-08-01)
Archaeobotanical materials subject to aDNA analysis were recovered from Yumuktepe and Yenikapi, two important archaeological sites in Anatolia and date back to the Pottery Neolithic Period i.e., 7th millennium BC. Many charred ancient seeds representing various cereal species including a great number of wheat grains were documented in mentioned sites. Among the cereal seeds, charred wheat samples were tentatively identified as Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta L. or Triticum new glume wheat (NGW) or atypical ...
Optimisation of tissue culture, regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation paramaters in winter wheat cultivars (T.durum cv. Kiziltan-91 and T.aestivum cv. Bezostaja-01)
Kavas, M.; Öktem, Hüseyin Avni; YÜCEL, MUSTAFA (2006-08-18)
Wheat, like other cereal species, shows a common recalcitrance and strong genotypic variation in tissue culture and Agrobacteriummediated transformation. A variety of explant sources have been used for obtaining wheat plants from in vitro cultures and Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. These are: isolated microspores (Mejza et al., 1993), mature embryos (Özgen et al., 1998; Delporte et al., 2001), immature embryos (Ozias-Akins and Vasil, 1982; Vasil et al., 1990; Pellegrineschi et al., 2004), and immat...
Archaeogenomic analysis of the first steps of Neolithization in Anatolia and the Aegean
Kilinc, Gulsah Merve; KOPTEKIN, Dilek; Atakuman, Çiğdem; SUMER, Arev Pelin; DONERTAS, Handan Melike; YAKA, Reyhan; Bilgin, Cemal Can; BÜYÜKKARAKAYA, ALİ METİN; Baird, Douglas; ALTINISIK, Ezgi; FLEGONTOV, Pavel; Gotherstrom, Anders; TOGAN, Inci; Somel, Mehmet (2017-11-29)
The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather th...
Citation Formats
M. Somel, “Characterisation of DNA from archaelogical wheat (Triticum L.) seeds from Anatolia,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2003.